Latest Invention On Science And Technology 2015 Pdf

File Name: latest invention on science and technology 2015 .zip
Size: 11459Kb
Published: 21.04.2021

Emerging technologies are those technical innovations that represent progressive innovations within a field for competitive advantage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The strategic use and management of Intellectual Property IP — in business as well as in international research initiatives — is essential for strengthening the European scientific and technological base, boosting innovation and ensuring growth in the EU. In this context the new EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon , places even more emphasis on systematic IP exploitation strategies as a means to better protect innovation initiatives and to reap commercial and economic benefits from EU-funded research. Therefore this IP training event will address the overall topic of how to create value through professional management and exploitation of IP. Following a very practical and comprehensive training approach, participants will be introduced to central concepts and strategies of how to turn intellectual assets into value-creating innovations.

Latest Science and Technology Current Affairs PDF – SSC & Bank Exams

Why is it so hard to build and maintain the capacity to innovate? The reason is not simply a failure to execute but a failure to articulate an innovation strategy that aligns innovation efforts with the overall business strategy.

Without such a strategy, companies will have a hard time weighing the trade-offs of various practices—such as crowdsourcing and customer co-creation—and so may end up with a grab bag of approaches.

And they will find it difficult to align different parts of the organization with shared priorities. As Corning, a leader in glass and materials science, has found, an innovation strategy must address how innovation will create value for potential customers, how the company will capture a share of that value, and what types of innovation to pursue. Because innovation cuts across functions, only senior leaders can set an innovation strategy.

In doing so, they must recognize that the strategy, like the process of innovation itself, requires continual experimentation and adaptation. Innovation remains a frustrating pursuit.

The root cause is that companies fall into the trap of adopting whatever best practices are in vogue or aping the exemplar innovator of the moment. This will help them make trade-off decisions so that they can choose the most appropriate practices and set overarching innovation priorities that align all functions.

Creating an innovation strategy involves determining how innovation will create value for potential customers, how the company will capture that value, and which types of innovation to pursue. Just as product designs must evolve to stay competitive, so must innovation strategies as the environment changes. Despite massive investments of management time and money, innovation remains a frustrating pursuit in many companies. Innovation initiatives frequently fail, and successful innovators have a hard time sustaining their performance—as Polaroid, Nokia, Sun Microsystems, Yahoo, Hewlett-Packard, and countless others have found.

The reasons go much deeper than the commonly cited cause: a failure to execute. The problem with innovation improvement efforts is rooted in the lack of an innovation strategy. A strategy is nothing more than a commitment to a set of coherent, mutually reinforcing policies or behaviors aimed at achieving a specific competitive goal.

Good strategies promote alignment among diverse groups within an organization, clarify objectives and priorities, and help focus efforts around them. But during my more than two decades studying and consulting for companies in a broad range of industries, I have found that firms rarely articulate strategies to align their innovation efforts with their business strategies. There is nothing wrong with any of those practices per se.

Individual best practices involve trade-offs. There is no one system that fits all companies equally well or works under all circumstances. An explicit innovation strategy helps you design a system to match your specific competitive needs.

Sales representatives hear daily about the pressing needs of the biggest customers. Marketing may see opportunities to leverage the brand through complementary products or to expand market share through new distribution channels. Diverse perspectives are critical to successful innovation. But without a strategy to integrate and align those perspectives around common priorities, the power of diversity is blunted or, worse, becomes self-defeating.

A good example of how a tight connection between business strategy and innovation can drive long-term innovation leadership is found in Corning, a leading manufacturer of specialty components used in electronic displays, telecommunications systems, environmental products, and life sciences instruments.

Kent Bowen and Courtney Purrington. Over its more than years Corning has repeatedly transformed its business and grown new markets through breakthrough innovations. It invests a lot in basic research, a practice that many companies gave up long ago. And it invests heavily in manufacturing technology and plants and continues to maintain a significant manufacturing footprint in the United States, bucking the trend of wholesale outsourcing and offshoring of production. Executing this strategy requires Corning to be at the leading edge of glass and materials science so that it can solve exceptionally challenging problems for customers and discover new applications for its technologies.

That requires heavy investments in long-term research. Sullivan Park has become a repository of accumulated expertise in the application of materials science to industrial problems. Because novel materials often require complementary process innovations, heavy investments in manufacturing and technology are a must. About 10 years ago Bristol-Myers Squibb BMS , as part of a broad strategic repositioning, decided to emphasize cancer as a key part of its pharmaceutical business.

Recognizing that biotechnology-derived drugs such as monoclonal antibodies were likely to be a fruitful approach to combating cancer, BMS decided to shift its repertoire of technological capabilities from its traditional organic-chemistry base toward biotechnology. The new business strategy emphasizing the cancer market required a new innovation strategy shifting technological capabilities toward biologics. I have consulted for BMS, but the information in this example comes from public sources.

Like the creation of any good strategy, the process of developing an innovation strategy should start with a clear understanding and articulation of specific objectives related to helping the company achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.

Rather, a robust innovation strategy should answer the following questions:. Unless innovation induces potential customers to pay more, saves them money, or provides some larger societal benefit like improved health or cleaner water, it is not creating value. Of course, innovation can create value in many ways. It might make a product perform better or make it easier or more convenient to use, more reliable, more durable, cheaper, and so on.

Choosing what kind of value your innovation will create and then sticking to that is critical, because the capabilities required for each are quite different and take time to accumulate. For instance, Bell Labs created many diverse breakthrough innovations over a half century: the telephone exchange switcher, the photovoltaic cell, the transistor, satellite communications, the laser, mobile telephony, and the operating system Unix, to name just a few.

But research at Bell Labs was guided by the strategy of improving and developing the capabilities and reliability of the phone network. The solid-state research program—which ultimately led to the invention of the transistor—was motivated by the need to lay the scientific foundation for developing newer, more reliable components for the communications system.

Research on satellite communications was motivated in part by the limited bandwidth and the reliability risks of undersea cables. Hence its emphasis on integrated hardware-software development, proprietary operating systems, and design makes total sense.

Value-creating innovations attract imitators as quickly as they attract customers. Rarely is intellectual property alone sufficient to block these rivals. As imitators enter the market, they create price pressures that can reduce the value that the original innovator captures. Moreover, if the suppliers, distributors, and other companies required to deliver an innovation are dominant enough, they may have sufficient bargaining power to capture most of the value from an innovation.

Think about how most personal computer manufacturers were largely at the mercy of Intel and Microsoft. Companies must think through what complementary assets, capabilities, products, or services could prevent customers from defecting to rivals and keep their own position in the ecosystem strong.

And by controlling the operating system, Apple makes itself an indispensable player in the digital ecosystem. One of the best ways to preserve bargaining power in an ecosystem and blunt imitators is to continue to invest in innovation. I recently visited a furniture company in northern Italy that supplies several of the largest retailers in the world from its factories in its home region. Depending on a few global retailers for distribution is risky from a value-capture perspective.

Because these megaretailers have access to dozens of other suppliers around the world, many of them in low-cost countries, and because furniture designs are not easily protected through patents, there is no guarantee of continued business. The company has managed to thrive, however, by investing both in new designs, which help it win business early in the product life cycle, and in sophisticated process technologies, which allow it to defend against rivals from low-cost countries as products mature.

Certainly, technological innovation is a huge creator of economic value and a driver of competitive advantage. But some important innovations may have little to do with new technology. In the past couple of decades, we have seen a plethora of companies Netflix, Amazon, LinkedIn, Uber master the art of business model innovation. Thus, in thinking about innovation opportunities, companies have a choice about how much of their efforts to focus on technological innovation and how much to invest in business model innovation.

Routine innovation is often called myopic or suicidal. That thinking is simplistic. Although each dimension exists on a continuum, together they suggest four quadrants, or categories, of innovation. Other examples include new versions of Microsoft Windows and the Apple iPhone. Disruptive innovation, a category named by my Harvard Business School colleague Clay Christensen, requires a new business model but not necessarily a technological breakthrough.

For that reason, it also challenges, or disrupts, the business models of other companies. Radical innovation is the polar opposite of disruptive innovation. The challenge here is purely technological. The emergence of genetic engineering and biotechnology in the s and s as an approach to drug discovery is an example.

Established pharmaceutical companies with decades of experience in chemically synthesized drugs faced a major hurdle in building competences in molecular biology. Architectural innovation combines technological and business model disruptions. An example is digital photography. For companies such as Kodak and Polaroid, entering the digital world meant mastering completely new competences in solid-state electronics, camera design, software, and display technology.

As one might imagine, architectural innovations are the most challenging for incumbents to pursue. In much of the writing on innovation today, radical, disruptive, and architectural innovations are viewed as the keys to growth, and routine innovation is denigrated as myopic at best and suicidal at worst.

That line of thinking is simplistic. In fact, the vast majority of profits are created through routine innovation. Microsoft is often criticized for milking its existing technologies rather than introducing true disruptions. The point here is not that companies should focus solely on routine innovation. Rather, it is that there is not one preferred type. In fact, as the examples above suggest, different kinds of innovation can become complements, rather than substitutes, over time.

Intel, Microsoft, and Apple would not have had the opportunity to garner massive profits from routine innovations had they not laid the foundations with various breakthroughs. Conversely, a company that introduces a disruptive innovation and cannot follow up with a stream of improvements will not hold new entrants at bay for long. Businesses in markets where the core technology is evolving rapidly like pharmaceuticals, media, and communications will have to be much more keenly oriented toward radical technological innovation—both its opportunities and its threats.

A company whose core business is maturing may have to seek opportunities through business model innovations and radical technological breakthroughs. But a company whose platforms are growing rapidly would certainly want to focus most of its resources on building and extending them. In thinking strategically about the four types of innovation, then, the question is one of balance and mix.

Google is certainly experiencing rapid growth through routine innovations in its advertising business, but it is also exploring opportunities for radical and architectural innovations, such as a driverless car, at its Google X facility. Apple is not resting on its iPhone laurels as it explores wearable devices and payment systems. Without an explicit strategy indicating otherwise, a number of organizational forces will tend to drive innovation toward the home field.

Some years ago I worked with a contact lens company whose leaders decided that it needed to focus less on routine innovations, such as adding color tints and modifying lens design, and be more aggressive in pursuing new materials that could dramatically improve visual acuity and comfort.

After a few years, however, little progress had been made.

List of emerging technologies

Here, we would be looking at the latest news about science and Technology starting from space research to indigenous development amidst the COVID Pandemic. Here, we will try to look at important developments which have taken place in the field of Science and Technology. Also explains ripples on outer disk of galaxy. EKS Kosmos Russia 1 st satellite having early warning system. Will detect missiles heading towards Russia. Third arm planned in India.

The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical review of the educational innovation field in the USA. It outlines classification of innovations, discusses the hurdles to innovation, and offers ways to increase the scale and rate of innovation-based transformations in the education system. US education badly needs effective innovations of scale that can help produce the needed high-quality learning outcomes across the system. The primary focus of educational innovations should be on teaching and learning theory and practice, as well as on the learner, parents, community, society, and its culture. Technology applications need a solid theoretical foundation based on purposeful, systemic research, and a sound pedagogy. One of the critical areas of research and innovation can be cost and time efficiency of the learning.

Environmental Technology & Innovation

Stories, practices, and politics of science and governance on the agricultural gene editing frontier. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 1 January ; 8 9. Many trends in agricultural biotechnology have extended fluidly from the first era of genetic modification using recombinant DNA techniques to the era of gene editing. But the high-profile, explicit, and assertive discourse of democratization with gene editing — especially CRISPR-Cas9 — is something new. In this paper, I draw on semi-structured interviews with gene editors, policy analysts, and communications experts as well as with critical academic and civil society experts.

You Need an Innovation Strategy

Environmental Technology & Innovation

Why is it so hard to build and maintain the capacity to innovate? The reason is not simply a failure to execute but a failure to articulate an innovation strategy that aligns innovation efforts with the overall business strategy. Without such a strategy, companies will have a hard time weighing the trade-offs of various practices—such as crowdsourcing and customer co-creation—and so may end up with a grab bag of approaches. And they will find it difficult to align different parts of the organization with shared priorities. As Corning, a leader in glass and materials science, has found, an innovation strategy must address how innovation will create value for potential customers, how the company will capture a share of that value, and what types of innovation to pursue.

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. We recognize the need to encourage and disseminate We recognize the need to encourage and disseminate the creation and development of new innovative products, technologies and ideas that improve our environment. Sectors of impact include soil, air, water and food in both rural and urban landscapes.

Остановка поисков ключа Цифровой крепости высвободила бы достаточно энергии для срабатывания дверных замков. - Успокойся, Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку ей на плечо. Это умиротворяющее прикосновение вывело Сьюзан из оцепенения. Внезапно она вспомнила, зачем искала Стратмора, и повернулась к. - Коммандер.

Innovation in education: what works, what doesn’t, and what to do about it?

 - Стратмора, похоже, удивило ее недоумение.