File Name: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation questionnaire .zip
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- Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Its Value for Organizational Psychology Research
- Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Its Value for Organizational Psychology Research
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Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Its Value for Organizational Psychology Research
The main significance of this study is that it attempted to explore the problem statement by looking through different lenses of Weiner's Attribution Theory, coupled with the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors discussed in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. Subjects of music teachers were taken from a pool of music teachers from the social media through an online survey questionnaire, where items of the questionnaire form were adapted from Weiss's Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.
Findings fromMultiple Regression Tests showed that there were three important predictors of music teachers' job satisfaction, and the predictors were work design autonomy , advancement and responsibility. Mean scores and results from qualitative open-ended question survey also revealed that music teachers are not happy with their salary, personal growth and advancement; and these are probably the causes of their turnover intentions previously studied in past literatures.
The study also provides some recommendations for music owners, managers and principals. The dissertation also reported some limitations observed and discussed some future implications. While areas such as recruitment and selection; managing performance; managing rewards; and organizational learning and development are some of the integral aspects of a human resource department, it is unquestionably true that employee motivation forms one of the core activities of any organization that values their human capital as their main elements that drives any business in a company.
In the corporate business world, many companies today still struggle in maintaining their employees and many relied on salary and bonus increment to retain high caliber workforce. Despite the talent retention efforts, studies revealed that more than 50 percent of workforce still has plans to change jobs Chew, Lai also explained that intrinsic motivation is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure, whereas extrinsic motivation is governed by reinforcement contingencies.
Many motivation theories were researched in the past and the main body of literature regarding motivations seems to dwell around the areas of organizational and educational perspectives, but not in the context of music educational business.
It is worth the time to explore the wealth of past motivation theories and how these factors correlates with job satisfaction theories in order to utilize them for further understanding of why turnover rates of music teachers are high in Malaysia and how their job satisfaction could be increased with proper motivation.
As what we have known since many decades ago, scholars all felt that teachers are arguably the most important professionals in all efforts to build a successful nation. According to Okemakinde et al. It is also crucial to promote job satisfaction among teachers, as this will encourage teachers to remain in their profession in a comfortable and devotedmanner.
As what have Morgan and O'Leary had found in an educational context, pupils' achievement improved tremendously when teachers felt good about their work.
Consequently, it is not surprising educational organizations implemented much effort and allocated huge budget in research, with the hope to go all the way into motivating their educators. Learning new strategies to retain teaching staff in my own commercial music academy has been my prime concern throughout my past management experiences.
The emergence of the idea for this study was initiated by my interest to gain new insights of job motivation and satisfaction among music teachers and what would help to increase their interest to stay longer in a particular music center. The establishment of commercial music stores, music schools or music studios; whatever the owner named it, is a global phenomenon. Fresh music graduates usually start their music-teaching career in these private music schools and they are usually paid a commission for teaching each student or an hourly salary.
They usually gain referrals from parents during the course of their service in the school while the owner of the music school enjoys recruiting more students, generating new income through profit sharing and selling musical products such as books, accessories and instruments that complement the classes. After many years of gaining experience and network, teachers tend to leave the music school and continue either teaching from home or venturing into their own music store.
In some cases, the turnover of teachers would also cause the students to leave the school and seek elsewhere for an alternative teacher Twedt, ;Hannan, The turnover of music teachers in music schools has been proven to be an ongoing global phenomenon. The result of the interviews seems to suggest that music schools are faced with high turnover of music teachers.
There were many evidences in past literature Zahra et al. Despite the critical turnover rate, it is sad to know that there is still very little research that investigates the causes of such phenomenon, especially in the context of music educational organizations. Mamo's questionnaire form that was used to study secondary school teacher is also modeled, as the motivator and hygiene variables have been tested using Cronbach's Alpha formula and the reliability coefficient was found to be 0.
Quantitative questionnaire with Likert scales and multiple choices questions were generated with Google's Survey Form and hardcopies of the questionnaire are made available too.
These questionnaires will be used to collect data using random sampling method from social medias and hardcopies of the forms are distributed in several commercial music schools around Klang Valley.
A target of at least samples will be randomly chosen from the pool of respondents. All data will be processed with SPSS software and means and standard deviation will be generated.
Using a descriptive statistic method, data will be analyzed and interpreted. Open-ended responses will be coded and categorized with Nvivo software.
Klang Valley was chosen as the scope of this study as it was known that this state host the most music examination candidates in the whole nation Ross, , and it is not surprising that these areas housed the most commercial music schools that employed many music teachers. Consequently, further studies are needed outside the scope of this study. Questionnaire validity and reliability are also subjected to respondents' honesty and accuracy.
It is designed to incorporate structural components that consist of establishment of research problems; review of literature;identification of a theoretical framework and methodologies used; followed by the presentation, analysis and synthesis of the research results.
Finally, the thesis closes with a comprehensive discussion and a proposed recommendation. Chapter 1 -The opening of the thesis lays the foundation and background to the research problem. The research questions are clearly defined, followed by the aims, significance, scope and limitations to the study.
A brief description of research methodologies used was also discussed. Finally, it closes with a layout on how the thesis is structured and presented. Chapter 2 -In this chapter, a substantive literature review related to job satisfaction and motivation were thoroughly explored. It helps to put the research problems in the right context and gives the reader an account to the relevant literature to the topic and the theoretical focus before engaging immensely into formation of a conceptual framework.
Chapter 3 -Based on the identified framework formed, this chapter includes a brief explanation of the main strategies and methodologies of this research.
The strategies include sampling size and procedure, research design, instrumentation, data collection technique and data analysis methods. The strengths and limitations of the method used is recognized and defined. It also unfolds how data were generated; which include questionnaire prepared based on related variables extracted from the literature review. Chapter 4 -Basically, this chapter consist of findings and conclusion drawn from the results of the data gathered.
A comprehensive discussion was made from all the data gathered, complete with detailed analysis and synthesis. This is the chapter where the data obtained from the application of the research strategies are processed and sorted.
Tables and charts are used to represent the data of the findings so results are more vivid and clearly presented. A final account is also summarized and conclusions were also made at the end. The conclusion in this chapter will then form a basis for recommendations on how music school leaders set their policies and suggestions for future research; followed by implication of future studies.
The current chapters now will explore some related literatures on motivation and job satisfaction. Past literatures that dealt with these areas are vast; and some of the more important earliest theories could be tracked in theories such as Herzberg's Two-factor Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
The development of these theories will be uncovered in this chapter and linked to this current study. In the past, Locke's job satisfaction definition that was quoted "…a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience". There were many different reasons that the turnover of music teachers is at the rise in most part of the world due to the decrease of their job satisfaction.
The study also gave an implication that the fact of music teachers are usually part-time appointed employees also contributed to their lack of satisfaction, as there was no sense of job security, job recognition, attractive salary packages, bonuses, paid maternity, medical leaves, and pension benefits. There was also study on preservice music teachers that indicates administrative support, parental and community support, and program sustainability are important factors for them in considering future employment Robinson, In Wong's study on music teachers' job-hopping intentions, she had asked music teachers on their decisions if they would have to leave their current jobs.
Results showed that teachers would still remain in the music-teaching field but in a different music school. Powers described that the music teaching profession as excessively workload, endless preparation of musical activities which were often seen as a burden, and most of the time their work were not usually appreciated if compared with other educators from other teaching disciplines such as math and science. Various historical theoretical frameworks in the past were used to research job satisfaction in the area of organizational and motivational psychology.
As reviewed in Boeve's thesis, researchers believed that the frameworks could be classified into three categories: content theorists eg. Herzberg, ;Maslow, , process theorists eg. Vroom, ;Adams, and situational theorists eg. Quarstein, et al. However, there were many different claims on the effect of happiness gained through job satisfaction in helping to improve productivity. Despite the truth that enjoyment of work helps to promote involvement and smooth interaction, there were also proves that happiness will reduce the motivation to seek improvement, thus dullness and passiveness will eventually occur Argyle, The research also found that National Association of Schools of Music NASM reported that more than 5, music teacher openings remained unfilled every year.
As defined by the online Oxford dictionary, attribution means the action of regarding something as being caused by a person or thing. In order to illustrate this, if a music teacher observes that he couldn't teach a particularly area properly in class, she is likely to form an explanation that she doesn't have the skills to deliver that particular area.
If this phenomenon is left unattended by the policy maker, the teacher might attribute that her incompetence was partly due to the lack of support or training by the school. Consequently, the teacher's attribution of the perceived lack of support would then lead her to leave the job for other better alternatives. Attribution theory however has its limitations and couldn't stand on its own as it is usually based on assumptions.
Malle explored many studies that utilized this theory and found that the causal concepts are ambiguous with very little empirical evidence. In order to explore the job satisfaction of music teachers' satisfaction working in commercial music schools, it is useful to integrate other motivational factors such as Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory was the earliest motivation theory introduced and the theory had influenced many following researchers such as Herzberg.
The lower-level needs are no longer a source of motivation when it is satisfied and fulfilled. The following Figure 1 describes the five hierarchies of basic needs, which was introduced by Maslow.
Despite the fact that anybody that has the desire and capable to achieve self-actualization level, it is unfortunately not always easy to fulfill every lower-level need; thus disrupting their journey towards the top level. Life experiences including failure in relationships or bankruptcy are some of the disruptions that might interfere with the upward progress towards self-actualization. Maslow also stated that there were very little people whom became fully self-actualized because the society usually rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs.
Maslow's theory also carried a significant limitation where he chose eighteen study targets that he felt had achieved self-actualization solely based on his personal assumptions. The theory's hypothesis on the fact that a higher level need would not be achieved if the lower needs are not fulfilled, had received much criticism as this assumption is generally not necessarily true McLeod, The findings of Maslow's different hierarchy of needs is not consistent as the five orders of different hierarchy of needs could be achieved in different orders based on different situations.
Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Its Value for Organizational Psychology Research
In this section, a critical review of the different measures used to assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise research is conducted. Certain criteria have guided the selection of the measures presented in this section. First, we have selected measures that are fully developed instruments that have gone through extensive validation steps. Second, we have chosen scales that have been used in research, published or unpublished, during the past 10 years. Scales that have not been used during that time frame are considered to be obsolete and are not reviewed. Finally, in light of recent theoretical development and because of space limitation, we have focused on motivation scales that assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation independently of determinants and outcomes, while focusing on the perceived reasons of behavior.
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Show full item record. Apriliana, Fika. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate intrinsic and extrinsic motivation level of English Department high GPA students. The interpretation of intrinsic and extrinsic mean score results suggested by Degang and descriptive narrative analysis were used to analyze the data. The result of this study revealed that the highest number of ED high GPA students were highly intrinsically motivated It was also found that student who had the highest combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation level among all of students High IM-Highest EM gained the highest average GPA 3.
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May 30, Dataset Open Access. Smith, Jennifer ; Onencan, Abby Muricho. The goal of this study is to investigate two things: 1 What motivates students to study at university?
This study focuses on investigating and comparing between two genders are male and female English students on their intrinsic, extrinsic motivation, and its types toward English learning. There are three types of intrinsic motivation; knowledge, stimulation, and accomplishment and also three sub scales of extrinsic motivation; external, introjected, and identified. The population of this study is English department students in sixth and eighth semester. They were already studying English more than 2 years for their college level and have enough knowledge and experience in English learning. This is a survey research and the participants were given Academic Motivation Scale AMS questionnaire with 24 items to examine their motivation.
Report examining the gap - including 15 key lessons informing our practical work with teachers and senior leaders. Clear and actionable recommendations for teachers on a range of high-priority issues, based on the best available evidence.
The Big Picture
Где Стратмор. - Коммандер Стратмор погиб. - Справедливость восторжествовала, как в дешевой пьесе. - Успокойтесь, Джабба, - приказал директор, - и доложите ситуацию. Насколько опасен вирус. Джабба пристально посмотрел на директора и вдруг разразился смехом.
- Я спущусь вниз, в подсобное помещение, и выключу рубильник. Стратмор медленно повернулся. Он являл собой печальное зрелище. - Это сделаю я, - сказал он, встал и, спотыкаясь, начал выбираться из-за стола. Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место. - Нет! - рявкнула. - Пойду я! - Ее тон говорил о том, что возражений она не потерпит.
Что у них с волосами? - превозмогая боль, спросил он, показывая рукой на остальных пассажиров. - Они все… - Красно-бело-синие? - подсказал парень. Беккер кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на серебряную дужку в верхней губе парня.
Он очутился в огромной комнате - бывшем гимнастическом зале. Бледно-зеленый пол мерцал в сиянии ламп дневного света, то попадая в фокус, то как бы проваливаясь. Лампы зловеще гудели. На стене криво висело баскетбольное кольцо. Пол был уставлен десятками больничных коек.
- Панк снова сплюнул в проход.
Только в прошлом месяце благодаря ТРАНСТЕКСТУ удалось предотвратить одну из самых изощренных террористических акций, с которыми приходилось сталкиваться агентству. Некая антиправительственная организация разработала план под кодовым названием Шервудский лес. Его целью была Нью-Йоркская фондовая биржа, а замыслом - перераспределение богатства.
Двигаясь в дыму, она вдруг вспомнила слова Хейла: У этого лифта автономное электропитание, идущее из главного здания. Я видел схему.
- Цуккини. - Сквош, - чуть не застонал Беккер. Сьюзан сделала вид, что не поняла. - Это похоже на цуккини, - пояснил он, - только корт поменьше.