File Name: skeletal muscle form and function .zip
- Skeletal muscle
- Skeletal muscle: A review of molecular structure and function, in health and disease
- Skeletal muscle
- Skeletal muscle structure and function
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Mitochondria are fascinating organelles regulating many critical cellular processes for skeletal muscle physiology. These include the aging-related deterioration of muscle function, disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, sepsis-induced muscle wasting, cachexia, obesity-induced insulin-resistance and pathology-specific muscle atrophy and dysfunction occurring in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis for instance, and much more. These include mitochondrial dynamics fusion and fission processes , morphology and processes involved in mitochondrial quality control mitophagy. Defining the mechanisms regulating these different aspects of mitochondrial biology, their importance for muscle physiology, as well as the interrelationships existing between mitochondrial function, morphology, dynamics and mitophagy will be critical to further increase our understanding of the role played by mitochondria in skeletal muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Contributors are encouraged to submit reviews, mini-reviews, perspectives, research articles and short communications.
Skeletal muscle: A review of molecular structure and function, in health and disease
This review provides a current perspective on the mechanism of vitamin D on skeletal muscle function with the emphasis on oxidative stress, muscle anabolic state and muscle energy metabolism. It focuses on several aspects related to cellular and molecular physiology such as VDR as the trigger point of vitamin D action, oxidative stress as a consequence of vitamin D deficiency. The interaction between vitamin D deficiency and mitochondrial function as well as skeletal muscle atrophy signalling pathways have been studied and clarified in the last years. To the best of our knowledge, we summarize key knowledge and knowledge gaps regarding the mechanism s of action of vitamin D in skeletal muscle. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with oxidative stress in skeletal muscle that influences the mitochondrial function and affects the development of skeletal muscle atrophy. Namely, vitamin D deficiency decreases oxygen consumption rate and induces disruption of mitochondrial function. These deleterious consequences on muscle may be associated through the vitamin D receptor VDR action.
Inflammation is a recognized contributor to muscle wasting. Research in injury and myopathy suggests that interactions between the skeletal muscle and immune cells confer a pro-inflammatory environment that in Bhullar, Cynthia Stretch, Abha R. Dunichand-Hoedl, Karen J. Bathe, Charles T.
Skeletal muscle , also called voluntary muscle , in vertebrates , most common of the three types of muscle in the body. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons , and they produce all the movements of body parts in relation to each other. Unlike smooth muscle and cardiac muscle , skeletal muscle is under voluntary control. Similar to cardiac muscle, however, skeletal muscle is striated; its long, thin, multinucleated fibres are crossed with a regular pattern of fine red and white lines, giving the muscle a distinctive appearance. Skeletal muscle fibres are bound together by connective tissue and communicate with nerves and blood vessels. For more information on the structure and function of skeletal muscle, see muscle and muscle system, human. Skeletal muscle Article Media Additional Info.
The muscle system is responsible for movement of the human body, posture, movement of substances inside the body andfor the generation of body heat. There are approximately known and named muscles and on top of that, muscle tissue is also found inside of the heart, digestive organs, and blood vessels. Skeletal muscle is a voluntary muscle, which means that we can actively control its function. Skeletal muscles often exist in pairs, whereby one muscle is the primary mover and the other acts as an antagonist. For example when you bend your arm, your biceps contracts whilst your triceps is relaxed.
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Skeletal muscle structure and function
NCBI Bookshelf. Heeransh D. Dave ; Micah Shook ; Matthew Varacallo. Authors Heeransh D. Dave ; Micah Shook 1 ; Matthew Varacallo 2.
Functional Tissue Engineering pp Cite as. In vitro tissue engineering of skeletal muscle involves culturing myogenic cells in an environment that emulates the in vivo environment so that the cells proliferate, fuse, organize in three dimensions, and differentiate into functional skeletal muscle. The tissue engineer uses a multitude of in vitro environmental cues to direct the proliferation process. The end result will be a skeletal muscle construct that resembles skeletal muscle in both form and function. The construct will be organized like a skeletal muscle, with long multinucleated cells oriented parallel to its long axis, and the construct will be capable of generating useful directed force and power. Such constructs have been developed from avian, rodent, and human primary muscle cells as well as immortalized myogenic cells.
Supplementary Table 2. A list of myopathies with known genetic associations in muscle genes mentioned in the manuscript is presented. Inflammatory, idiopathic myopathies or myopathies resulting as a consequence of other diseases are not listed in the table. Decades of research in skeletal muscle physiology have provided multiscale insights into the structural and functional complexity of this important anatomical tissue, designed to accomplish the task of generating contraction, force and movement. Skeletal muscle can be viewed as a biomechanical device with various interacting components including the autonomic nerves for impulse transmission, vasculature for efficient oxygenation, and embedded regulatory and metabolic machinery for maintaining cellular homeostasis. We begin this review with a focus on molecular mechanisms underlying muscle tissue development myogenesis , with an emphasis on satellite cells and muscle regeneration. We next review the molecular structure and mechanisms underlying the many structural components of the muscle: neuromuscular junction, sarcomere, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and vasculature surrounding muscle.
Title: Skeletal Muscle: Form And Function - 2nd Edition Author: Brian MacIntosh,Phillip Gardiner,Alan McComas, Publisher: Human Kinetics Pages:
И он задвигал крошечными металлическими контактами на кончиках пальцев, стремясь как можно быстрее сообщить американским заказчикам хорошую новость. Скоро, подумал он, совсем. Как хищник, идущий по следам жертвы, Халохот отступил в заднюю часть собора, а оттуда пошел на сближение - прямо по центральному проходу. Ему не было нужды выискивать Беккера в толпе, выходящей из церкви: жертва в ловушке, все сложилось на редкость удачно.
Похоже, он не передал ничего хотя бы отдаленно похожего на набор букв и цифр - только список тех, кого ликвидировал. - Черт возьми! - не сдержался Фонтейн, теряя самообладание. - Он должен там. Ищите. Джабба окончательно убедился: директор рискнул и проиграл.
Я с ним говорил, но… - Надеюсь, вы отчитали его как следует! - воскликнул Клушар. Беккер кивнул: - Самым решительным образом. Консульство этого так не оставит. - Надеюсь.