File Name: characteristics of open and distance learning .zip
- Distance learning
- Open and Distance Learning (ODL)
- Differentiating between distance/open education systems-parameters for comparison
The surveying technique was adapted with a piloted structured questionnaire consisting of two components. The structured component was used to evaluate personal, socio-economic and demographic data.
Data collected from the structured component were frequency tabulated and cross-tabulated with the SPSS computer software. Responses of the open ended part were examined, categorized and the frequency percentages of each response category were calculated. The structured component recognized that the majority of BSc undergraduates of the OUSL represent employed 53 percent , late adolescents 92 percent below age 27 who reside in rural or semi-urban areas 75 percent.
Approximately 50 percent of respondents perceived OUSL as an institute which facilitates working people by conducting part time-based or distance mode education with self-learning features. In total, The educational process was perceived correctly as an ODL system by 52 percent, while the remainder also identified the system to be a more self-study and student centered flexible learning system. Hence, more attention should be paid to make students recognize the role they have to play in an ODL system in order to succeed at OUSL.
Although research has been carried out periodically on the process of ODL education system at OUSL, on the graduate output and dropouts, etc. As the output invariably depends on the input and the process, this type of survey is timely and novel.
Kuruppuarachchi, K. Kuruppuarachchi and K. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. Teaching at a distance is characterized by separation of teacher and learner and learner from the learning group, by replacing interpersonal face-to-face communication of conventional education by an impersonal mode of communication mediated by technology Keegan, At present, distance education systems and open education have become a feasible and viable alternative to those who were denied education due to one reason or the other Nigam and Joshi, Although subjects dealing with humanities and social sciences have been offered through open distance learning ODL in the absence of major constraints, teaching science and technology courses through ODL is more challenging, mainly due to intensive practical work Nigam and Joshi, Student dropout rates in ODL higher education systems are typically higher than in face-to-face conventional systems of higher education Barefoot, , and a study focusing dropouts of the BSc degree program at the Indira Gandhi National Open University, India Fozdar et al.
The lack of time due to employment, family commitments , distance to study centers, absence of interaction with students, insufficient academic support, expectations of the program not being met and financial constraints were some of the key issues identified in this study. Established in following the Open University UK concept, the institute has the same legal and academic status as any other national university in Sri Lanka.
Due to the nature of its teaching methodology and infrastructure, the OUSL is able to serve a large student population spread throughout the country. Data for indicate that it caters to 42, students, in either the Central campus in Nawala Colombo Regional center or in any one of the other seven regional centers in Kandy, Matara, Jaffna, Anuradhapura, Badulla, Kurunegala or Batticaloa.
The Faculty of Natural Sciences conducts several study programs such as short courses, diploma programs, certificate programs, etc. As at , 4, students were registered for and following the BSc degree program at OUSL and approximately 1, students enroll annually. Unlike in the other state universities, the students enrolling to follow degree programs at OUSL are comparatively diverse Jayathilake et al.
Tantrigoda et al. Students sometimes opt for ODL expecting it to be easy Carnevale, and often face huge difficulties when they realize ODL requires equal if not more effort than conventional education Fozdar and Kumar, Further, Kuruppuarachchi et al. Evaluation of the nature of input of PS is very important for future educational strategic changes and for efficient quality products Kuruppuarachchi et al.
Of this 55 percent registered at CRC. The surveying technique was adapted with a piloted structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two components. The statistics for BSc student enrollment clearly shows that all other six regional centers and 18 study centers belonging to OUSL collectively represent only 45 percent of the new registrant population.
Data of responses of the first component structured component of the questionnaire were used to make a frequency tabulation test with the SPSS computer package. The open ended questions received diverse as well as similar responses. Some seemingly different responses tended to have similar meanings. All responses were carefully examined and then the main categories were chosen. Each individual response was analyzed and placed in the relevant category.
The responses provided were scrutinized with an open mind, without any restrictions, discrimination or preformed perceptions. The responses of students for each part were categorized, then quantified and are presented as described under the result and discussion section. The results of the structured component of the questionnaire describe the socio-economic characteristics of BSc first registrants of OUSL. The highest educational qualification of parents or any other family member of most registrants was found to be ca.
This implies that the majority of parents are middle class employees. Further, the permanent residences of the new registrant to the BSc degree are mainly rural or semi-urban The government policy of Sri Lanka after independence in was to provide free school and university education. However, after this policy was changed somewhat to allow recognized private sector and international universities to established and award degrees at a fee for those who wished to obtain them. Charges of such institutes are comparatively high.
Similar results were seen in the Bangladesh Open University, where Most of the students that registered for the BSc degree are unmarried 92 percent , employed 53 percent Figure 2 and belong to the late adolescent 48 percent age , 92 percent below 27 years age category. The age at graduation of students of OUSL in showed that the majority of BSc graduates were less than 30 years 76 percent , Bachelor of Engineering Technology BTech graduates years and that 58 percent of LLB law graduates ranged from Senarathne et al.
As such it is clear that BSc graduates have been comparatively young even in the past. However, in the Open University of UK, the majority of undergraduates were aged between 31 and 60 and the average age was 43 years Feinstein et al. However, a study carried out in in Sri Lanka Jayathilake et al. This is a good indication from the ODL concept point of view. However, one has to bear in mind that now there are more private universities.
Some of these provide part time-based education; hence the competition faced by OUSL is higher. Thus, the administration of the university should attempt to attract clients of other social strata as well. Most employment opportunities in Sri Lanka belong to the private sector and usually they consider the social strata, school, etc. In addition, retaining learners has always been an ongoing challenge for ODL institutions worldwide Fozdar et al.
The student dropout rate has been high ca. It appears that a considerable percentage of undergraduates of OUSL give up their degree program without completion. The responses provided by students for each of these questions are tabulated from Tables I-IV , respectively. For example, they have recognized that the teaching-learning process as an open distance system Only, a very low amount of response frequencies 1. Aluwihare and De Silva state that about 86 percent BTech undergraduates of OUSL did not show sufficient knowledge on the open and distant teaching-learning process and concepts.
Further, this was found to be a contributory factor in prolonging the time duration taken for completing the degree.
Efficient counseling and orientations programs can be recommended for those who show poor perception of the ODL teaching-learning process.
Generally, the OUSL uses printed material as instruction media and to a lesser extent electronic aids as supplementary material. More response frequencies The latest statistics issued by the Telecommunication Regulatory Commission of Sri Lanka show that active internet users have increased up to more than 5 million and the number of mobile broadband connections has doubled each year from to Internet usage of Sri Lanka, The computer literacy of the younger generation aged in Sri Lanka is quite high.
Of the age group 65 percent could manage basic functions of the computer as opposed to the year olds where only 43 percent demonstrated knowledge in computer usage De Silva et al. We found that more than 92 percent of the BSc undergraduates registered for OUSL are below 27 years age, and as such should be computer literate.
The answer may indicate their subconscious preference to use electronic media including the internet as instructional media. In this context OUSL is still not on par with the use of technology by the younger generation. But quite a large frequency percentage After facing the highly competitive G.
From among those who are eligible for university education, it is actually only The majority of students, who perform relatively well at G. Further, This clearly shows that the larger percentage of students either do not qualify G. These students either select suitable middle class employment or directly enter for further studies at private institutes or OUSL. Even those who are employed may select higher education at OUSL.
Our study results shows that, 48 percent of new registrants are between the ages 18 and 22; and therefore, fresh school leavers. The role played by secondary school teachers would still be fresh in the minds of new registrants. Hence they prefer close contact with teachers. Basically, ODL students are physically isolated. However, psychologically, adolescent students prefer and need emotional contact with teachers or their peers.
Situations such as these make students distressed or in the long run even give up the study program. Therefore it is recommended that appropriate orientation and counseling programs be conducted during initial registration time of BSc undergraduates are strengthened to overcome these issues. The major components of the teaching-learning process of the ODL system are course development and delivery.
During course development, more attention is given to develop knowledge or for the cognitive development of the students. The course delivery part of the ODL system therefore, should mainly consider the development of skills, attitudes and values. Hence, course delivery components such as practical, day schools, and other extracurricular work should be reformed to provide more interaction between teachers and students as well as among students.
For example, peer interaction sessions, active learning, cooperative learning or group learning techniques can be strengthened to develop soft skills and values and enhance social interaction to eliminate the social isolation of adolescent BSc undergraduates of OUSL. According to the Sri Lanka Qualification Framework , 12 learning outcomes should be achieved by any undergraduate of a Sri Lankan University.
This includes only 25 percent for knowledge-based domains and the remaining 75 percent are mainly targeted toward attitude and skills development. Hence, OUSL too has to reform its teaching-learning process to include more attitude and skills development while maintaining its identity as an ODL institute.
Open and Distance Learning (ODL)
The discussion is preceded by a conceptual examination of the relations and interrelations between the distance education and open learning terms. Der Diskussion geht eine konzeptionelle Untersuchung der Beziehungen zwischen den Begriffen Fernunterricht und offenes Lernen voraus. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Bailey, D. In: N.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Distance learning DL is not a new trend in the field of education. DL comprises teaching of students who not always are physically present in an educational institution. In the Arab region, there are three modes of distance learning institutions: dual mode, single mode, and virtual mode. A dual mode university is an institution that provides conventional and distance education simultaneously. A single mode university is an institution wherein distance education is the sole mission to which teachers and administrative staff are exclusively dedicated. More specifically, course development, instruction, evaluation and other educational processes are tailored to meet the needs of the distant learner.
To print the story please do so via the link in the story toolbar. Distance learning is a popular trend, which incorporates the use of technology. It is changing the way education is viewed. Although distance learning presents its challenges, it has provides an opportunity for many non-traditional students to receive a high-quality education. Distance learning is a non-traditional educational method, which offers online courses through the use of technology. Students and professors communicate electronically through email or online communities.
Differentiating between distance/open education systems-parameters for comparison
The surveying technique was adapted with a piloted structured questionnaire consisting of two components. The structured component was used to evaluate personal, socio-economic and demographic data. Data collected from the structured component were frequency tabulated and cross-tabulated with the SPSS computer software. Responses of the open ended part were examined, categorized and the frequency percentages of each response category were calculated.
Distance learning , also called distance education, e-learning , and online learning , form of education in which the main elements include physical separation of teachers and students during instruction and the use of various technologies to facilitate student-teacher and student-student communication. Distance learning traditionally has focused on nontraditional students, such as full-time workers, military personnel, and nonresidents or individuals in remote regions who are unable to attend classroom lectures. However, distance learning has become an established part of the educational world, with trends pointing to ongoing growth. An increasing number of universities provide distance learning opportunities. A pioneer in the field is the University of Phoenix , which was founded in Arizona in and by the first decade of the 21st century had become the largest private school in the world, with more than , enrolled students.
Are open-minded about sharing life, work, and educational experiences as part of the learning process. The online process requires students to utilize their experiences. Are able to communicate through writing. Students need to feel comfortable in expressing themselves in writing. Are self-motivated and self-disciplined.
Чатрукьян знал: это первое, чего в любом случае потребует Стратмор. Выглянув в пустую шифровалку, он принял решение. На загрузку программы и поиск вируса уйдет минут пятнадцать. Скажи, что ничего нет, - прошептал .
Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала.