File Name: canadian citizenship questions and answers 2014 .zip
The process of immigrating to Canada will always have the same end goal for all permanent residency applicants, becoming a Canadian citizen. You have to become a permanent resident of Canada before you can take the test to become a true Canadian.
- 10 Very Canadian Questions From the Canadian Citizenship Test
- Guide: Application for Canadian Citizenship: Adults - Subsection 5(1) CIT 0002
- Canadian Citizenship Act, 1947
10 Very Canadian Questions From the Canadian Citizenship Test
Since the early s, many Western governments have made changes to their immigration and integration policies. In Canada, between and a new citizenship guide with greater emphasis on Canadian history and the monarchy was issued; initiatives against the fraudulent acquisition of citizenship were adopted; a more demanding citizenship test was introduced; the citizenship ceremony was modified by requiring all candidates to have the face uncovered; and language requirements for citizenship were tightened.
According to the government, these changes were intended to enhance the value of Canadian citizenship. This study by Elke Winter reviews these changes and evaluates them against the backdrop of international debates on naturalization and citizenship. At a practical level, the naturalization process has become longer and much more cumbersome over the past decade.
This has particularly affected the less educated and those whose mother tongue is neither English nor French. Naturalization rates nevertheless remain high by international standards. At the level of discourse, Winter observes that there has been a potentially troublesome shift in how Canadian citizenship is presented. In her view, depicting prospective citizens as fraudulent and mischievous can fan insecurity and distrust in the population. This holds true for singling out specific religions and cultures as potentially less adaptable than others.
In her view, this runs counter to the ethos of multiculturalism, which replaced the dominant ideology of conformity to Anglophone norms around 40 years ago. Winter concludes that we should monitor these developments, not least because they convey messages that may be counterproductive to the successful integration of immigrants from diverse backgrounds. Since the early s, many Western governments have been implementing changes to their immigration and integration policies, including tightening the requirements for acquiring citizenship.
Between and , the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany implemented formal citizenship tests. The United States and Australia revised their citizenship tests in and , respectively. Canada is no exception. Between and , five major changes were made to the naturalization process: a new citizenship guide was issued; initiatives against the fraudulent acquisition of citizenship were introduced; a new citizenship test was designed; the citizenship ceremony was modified; and language requirements for Canadian citizenship were tightened.
Furthermore, a bill promoting the acceleration of citizenship acquisition for members of the Canadian Forces was introduced in the House of Commons but not adopted. This study strives to answer the following three questions:. In Canada, only some of the recent policy changes have attracted scholarly attention, notably the amendments to the Citizenship Act Harder ; Harder and Zhyznomirska ; Nyers ; Winter and the citizenship study guide Chapnick ; Winter and Sauvageau Many other aspects of the reforms have been ignored with the exception of Alboim and Cohl a,b.
In the international arena, by contrast, political changes to citizenship acquisition have generated much public debate and a huge body of scholarship. Most of these academic debates have been about Old World countries, specifically in Western Europe e.
On the one hand, pointing to the widespread acceptance of citizenship acquisition by birth on the territory jus soli and the introduction of standardized citizenship tests in several European countries, some scholars argue that the recent changes must be interpreted as an opening and liberalization of citizenship Joppke and Morawska On the other hand, critics insist that European citizenship policies are actually becoming more restrictive, and that Canada might be following suit Marwah and Triadafilopoulos Scholars point to a fusion of immigration control with immigrant integration concerns, which had previously belonged to a separate policy domain Goodman In this study, I will evaluate policy changes to naturalization in Canada against the backdrop of these international debates.
First, I provide a brief theoretical perspective on naturalization and some data on the Canadian case. The recent changes, sorted chronologically and divided into seven categories, are the focus of the next section, followed by evaluation of these changes. I identify the most important questions in the international debates on citizenship and apply them to the Canadian case, in order to situate the current naturalization rules within both the Canadian and the global contexts and reveal larger patterns below the surface of an abundance of bureaucratic activity.
The costs, benefits and potentially life-changing consequences of gaining permanent residency in Canada are arguably much bigger than those related to taking up citizenship. While this may be the case from the perspective of some immigrants, things certainly look different from the perspective of the host society.
Naturalization matters because it is the quintessential procedure of turning outsiders into full members of the national community. In the academic literature, the process of naturalization is sometimes considered even more significant than citizenship by birthright. Naturalization most purely embodies the ideals of a social contract and deliberative choice.
In citizenship through naturalization, a consenting adult foreigner affirmatively applies for Canadian citizenship. For the French sociologist Abdelmalek Sayad, the importance of naturalization is not principally rooted in realpolitik. Rather, naturalization is to be located in the symbolic realm. This is because the integration of newcomers is perceived according to categories that are more strongly ethical than political in nature.
Put differently, for the national amour-propre to be satisfied, not only must naturalization be asked for, there must also be the possibility that it can be rejected. Obviously, each government in power interprets these tasks differently. Consider that in the share of foreign-born residents aged 15 and older who had become Canadian citizens was 75percent OECD , Equally impressive is the annual number of people who naturalize — in , , did so see table 1.
For a country like Canada, which receives 67 percent of its overall annual population growth through immigration Statistics Canada , naturalization is extremely important. Comparatively speaking, the conditions for taking up Canadian citizenship are fairly straightforward. Immigrants who are permanent residents must have resided in the country for three of the previous four years to be eligible. They must be at least 18 years of age, display an adequate ability in English or French new documentation or testing has been required since November 1, and have no criminal convictions in the previous three years.
In addition, since , candidates between the ages of 18 and 54 must pass a formal citizenship test; this is intended to ensure they understand the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and can demonstrate some knowledge of Canadian history, values and institutions. The test replaced oral interviews with appointed citizenship judges, who remain responsible for final approval of citizenship.
Under certain circumstances, judges still interview candidates, such as those who have failed the test or are older than Citizenship candidates are also required to take a citizenship oath, which includes a pledge of allegiance to the Queen. Taking into account that prospective citizens must have acquired permanent resident status and presumably a reasonable level of language skills, the costs associated with taking up Canadian citizenship are relatively small. Only immigrants from countries that do not recognize dual citizenship have to renounce home country citizenship.
As for the benefits of Canadian citizenship, these include the rights to vote, apply for a passport, be a candidate in elections, enter and leave the country freely, enjoy protection from deportation and be given preference for federal government jobs.
This section examines changes to Canadian citizenship and naturalization rules between and , with the emphasis upon naturalization.
Naturalization is in federal jurisdiction; citizenship procedures are administered by Citizenship and Immigration Canada CIC. The need to address the issue of citizenship re-emerged in the wake of the adoption of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative, 6 which made the possession of a Canadian passport mandatory in order for a Canadian to cross the US border.
In , the Harper government introduced amendments to the Citizenship Act that came into effect in The repatriation clause allows citizens born between and who lost their citizenship to retroactively reclaim it, even if that implies that they acquire dual or multiple citizenship.
Such restrictions are rare but not unique to Canada. Belgium has a similar law adopted in and modified in In the United States, by contrast, citizenship transmission requirements for children born outside the country depend on whether the birth occurs in or out of wedlock and on whether one or both parents are US citizens.
If both parents are US citizens and the child is born in wedlock, he or she is entitled to citizenship if at least one parent had been resident in the United States or one of its outlying possessions before the birth of the child. In this case, no specific period of residence time is required for the parent, and there are no retention requirements for the child. France grants citizenship to all foreign-born children of French parents; French citizens living abroad can thus pass on citizenship to their offspring indefinitely.
In November , Minister Kenney launched a new guide intended for permanent residents preparing for the Canadian citizenship test. Not only is the new guide, Discover Canada: The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship , longer than its precursor, but it also contains much more prescriptive and normative language. It also places greater emphasis on Canadian history generally, and specifically on military history and the place of the British monarchy in Canada CIC a.
The guide was generally well received, particularly by editorial writers and columnists in the print media. However, a controversy erupted in March when it was discovered that Kenney had requested the removal of references to the rights of homosexuals, specifically the legalization of same-sex marriage Winter and Sauvageau The House of Commons Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration adopted a motion recommending that the rights of homosexuals be added to future versions of the new guide.
The slightly revised edition of Discover Canada published in March mentions the rights of homosexuals, including the right to same-sex marriage and the prohibition of all forms of discrimination based on sexual orientation.
Also included are additions regarding Canadian democratic principles, certain historical events notably the War of and the prohibition of forced marriage CIC g. Like the previous version, the new exam consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions to be answered within 30 minutes. The score required to pass, however, was raised from 60 to 75 percent CIC g. Indeed, the new test seemed to place more emphasis on the rights and responsibilities of citizenship than had its predecessor.
The media soon reported a marked increase in the failure rate: according to one article, from between 4 and 8 percent for the old test to nearly 30 percent for the March version Presse Canadienne a. CIC was obliged to modify the test in order to reduce the failure rate to 20 percent. A revised test was introduced in October In March and July , the government introduced new and still harder tests, which led to a decrease of the pass rate to Individuals having the most difficulty in passing the test are said to be accompanying family members, who typically have lower levels of education.
In addition to variations according to level of education, success rates seem to vary drastically by country of origin. These comparisons must be made with care, since these data do not take into consideration important differences in the number of candidates from each country for example, only 14 candidates from Guinea-Bissau wrote the test in , compared with 2, from Afghanistan and 3, from the United States ; but they are indicators for potential injustices that should be carefully monitored, with remedies applied as needed.
Furthermore, the emphasis on learning and memorizing introduces a class- or education-based bias into the process of becoming a Canadian citizen. Since this bias may also have ethnoracial implications, test results must be closely tracked. Between and , the Conservative government introduced or attempted to introduce various measures to strengthen laws against attempts to obtain Canadian citizenship through fraudulent means. The proposed Act would have complemented another law specifically concerned with immigration consultants, Bill C, the Cracking Down on Crooked Consultants Act , introduced in the House the previous day.
Bill C did not get past first reading. At the time of writing, no further bills of this type have been proposed. Bill C, concerning immigration consultants, came into effect in March The new law, its title changed from the Cracking Down on Crooked Consultants Act to An Act to Amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act , provides for the warning and admonishment of fraudulent immigration consultants during the period preceding an immigration request and not only after submission, as was previously the case.
The online consultation was followed a month later by two town hall meetings on the same subject, one in Montreal and the other in Vancouver CIC d,e. In November , the relevant rules were made more stringent.
Each case of potential fraud is considered individually, and only a citizenship judge possesses the legal authority to rule against individuals attempting to obtain Canadian citizenship without having been physically present in the country. Such rulings, however, can be overturned, as shown by a Federal Court decision in October The fraud investigations continued into In early , CIC had to acknowledge that of several thousands of alleged fraudsters, only had actually been given formal notice that their citizenship was at risk; and 90 percent of these individuals intended to appeal a potential citizenship revocation Canadian Press This time span was later substantially increased.
According to one immigration lawyer, Joshua Sohn, requests that once took eight to twelve months from submission to the granting of citizenship would take up to two years or more under the new process Chu
Guide: Application for Canadian Citizenship: Adults - Subsection 5(1) CIT 0002
The act established Canadian citizenship as a distinct category and allowed residents of Canada to obtain citizenship regardless of their country of origin. The Canadian Citizenship Act established the criteria for obtaining citizenship and outlined the circumstances under which citizenship could be lost or revoked. Canadian citizenship was automatically conferred upon natural-born Canadians, which included those born outside of Canada if their father was born in Canada or was a British subject with Canadian domicile. Individuals that were not natural-born Canadians but were British subjects with Canadian domicile or naturalized subjects prior to the enactment of the legislation would also receive citizenship. Immigrants could apply for citizenship after residing in Canada for five years providing they were of good character and possessed adequate knowledge of French or English. The language requirement could be disregarded if an immigrant had resided in Canada continuously for 20 years or more.
Since the early s, many Western governments have made changes to their immigration and integration policies. In Canada, between and a new citizenship guide with greater emphasis on Canadian history and the monarchy was issued; initiatives against the fraudulent acquisition of citizenship were adopted; a more demanding citizenship test was introduced; the citizenship ceremony was modified by requiring all candidates to have the face uncovered; and language requirements for citizenship were tightened. According to the government, these changes were intended to enhance the value of Canadian citizenship. This study by Elke Winter reviews these changes and evaluates them against the backdrop of international debates on naturalization and citizenship. At a practical level, the naturalization process has become longer and much more cumbersome over the past decade. This has particularly affected the less educated and those whose mother tongue is neither English nor French. Naturalization rates nevertheless remain high by international standards.
This is not a legal document. The explanations and definitions are not legal definitions. In case of a discrepancy between the language in this document and the relevant legislation or regulations, the legal text in the legislation and regulations prevails. Read this instruction guide completely and then fill out each of the applicable forms in the application package. If you or the child you are applying for was adopted outside of Canada by Canadian citizens, you can only use this application for a replacement certificate.
Canadian Citizenship Act, 1947
Make sure you use a version of the application form dated October or later. You can find the version date on the bottom left corner of the form. The date you sign or mail your form does not change the version date. Canada is a country that embodies multiculturalism and diversity and encourages newcomers to achieve their full potential by supporting their integration and active participation in social, cultural, economic and political affairs.
As the Department of Homeland Security DHS continues to focus its enforcement resources on the removal of individuals who pose a danger to national security or a risk to public safety, DHS will exercise prosecutorial discretion as appropriate to ensure that enforcement resources are not expended on low priority cases, such as individuals who came to the United States as children and meet other key guidelines. Individuals who demonstrate that they meet the guidelines below may request consideration of deferred action for childhood arrivals DACA for a period of two years, subject to renewal for a period of two years, and may be eligible for employment authorization.
Сьюзан обшарила весь жесткий диск и в конце концов нашла папку электронной почты, тщательно запрятанную среди других директорий. Открыв ее, она увидела несколько дополнительных папок; создавалось впечатление, что у Хейла было множество почтовых адресов. Один из них, к ее удивлению, был адресом анонимного провайдера. Сьюзан открыла одно из старых входящих сообщений, и у нее тотчас же перехватило дыхание.
Внезапно он взвился в воздух и боком полетел вниз, прямо над Беккером, распростертым на животе с вытянутыми вперед руками, продолжавшими сжимать подсвечник, об который споткнулся Халохот. Халохот ударился сначала о внешнюю стену и только затем о ступени, после чего, кувыркаясь, полетел головой. Пистолет выпал из его рук и звонко ударился о камень. Халохот пролетел пять полных витков спирали и замер. До Апельсинового сада оставалось всего двенадцать ступенек.
Если бы я сумел слегка модифицировать этот код, - продолжал Стратмор, - до его выхода в свет… - Он посмотрел на нее с хитрой улыбкой. Сьюзан потребовалось всего мгновение.