King Arthur In Legend And History Richard White Pdf

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King Arthur: History and Legend

Early appearances of Morgan do not elaborate her character beyond her role as a goddess, a fay , a witch , or a sorceress, generally benevolent and related to King Arthur as his magical saviour and protector. Her prominence increased over time, as did her moral ambivalence, and in some texts there is an evolutionary transformation of her to an antagonist , particularly as portrayed in cyclical prose such as the Lancelot-Grail and the Post-Vulgate Cycle.

A significant aspect in many of Morgan's medieval and later iterations is the unpredictable duality of her nature, with potential for both good and evil. Her character may have been rooted in Welsh mythology as well as other earlier myths and historical figures. The earliest account, by Geoffrey of Monmouth in Vita Merlini , refers to Morgan in conjunction with the Isle of Apples Avalon , which is where Arthur was carried after being fatally wounded in the Battle of Camlann.

In the Robert de Boron -derived French prose versions and the works based on them, including among them Thomas Malory 's influential Le Morte d'Arthur , she is usually described as the youngest daughter of Arthur's mother, Igraine , and her first husband, Gorlois.

Morgan unhappily marries Urien with whom she has a son, Yvain. She becomes an apprentice of Merlin , and a capricious and vindictive adversary of some knights of the Round Table , all the while harbouring a special hatred for Arthur's wife Guinevere. In this tradition, she is also sexually active and even predatory, taking numerous lovers that may include Merlin and Accolon , with an unrequited love for Lancelot.

In some variants, including the popular retelling by Malory, Morgan is the greatest enemy of Arthur, scheming to usurp his throne, indirectly becoming an instrument of his death; however, she eventually reconciles with Arthur, retaining her original role of taking him on his final journey to Avalon. Many other medieval and Renaissance works feature continuations of her evolutionary tale from the aftermath of Camlann as she becomes the immortal queen of Avalon in both Arthurian and non-Arthurian stories, sometimes alongside Arthur.

After a period of being largely absent from modern culture, Morgan's character again rose to prominence in the 20th and 21st centuries, appearing in a wide variety of roles and portrayals. The earliest spelling of the name found in Geoffrey of Monmouth 's Vita Merlini , written c.

The name is not to be confused with the unrelated Modern Welsh masculine name Morgan spelled Morcant in the Old Welsh period. While many later works make Morgan specifically human, she retains her magical powers, [8] and sometimes also her otherworldly if not divine attributes. A chiefly Greek construction is a relatively new origin theory by Carolyne Larrington. Morgan has also been often linked with the supernatural mother Modron , [7] [20] derived from the continental mother goddess figure of Dea Matrona and featured in medieval Welsh literature.

Modron appears in Welsh Triad 70 "Three Blessed Womb-Burdens of the Island of Britain" — in which her children by Urien are named Owain mab Urien son and Morfydd daughter [21] — and a later folktale have recorded more fully in the manuscript Peniarth Furthermore, the historical Urien had a treacherous ally named Morcant Bulc who plotted to assassinate him, similar to how Morgan attempts to kill Urien.

According to Gerald of Wales in De instructione principis , a noblewoman and close relative of King Arthur named Morganis carried the dead Arthur to her island of Avalon identified by him as Glastonbury , where he was buried. Purportedly an account of the life of Merlin , it elaborates some episodes from Geoffrey's more famous earlier work, Historia Regum Britanniae Geoffrey's Arthur does have a sister, whose name here is Anna, but the possibility of her being a predecessor to Morgan is unknown.

Morgen agrees to take Arthur, delivered to her by Taliesin to have him revived, but says it might take a long time. She and her sisters are capable of shapeshifting and flying "like Daedalus , on strange wings" [9] , [32] and at least seemingly [18] use their powers only for good. According to a theory postulated by R. Loomis , Geoffrey was not the original inventor of Morgan's character, which had already existed in hypothetical unrecorded stories of her as Arthur's fairy saviour, or even also his fairy godmother her earliest shared supernatural ability being able to traverse on or under water.

Such stories being told by wandering storytellers as credited by Gerald of Wales would then influence various authors writing independently from each other, especially since Vita Merlini was a relatively little-known text. Here, she has a daughter named Morganette and an adoptive son named Passelion, who in turn have a son named Morgan, described as an ancestor of the Lady of the Lake. In Jaufre , an early Occitan language Arthurian romance dated c.

Ulrich's unnamed fairy queen character might be also related to Geoffrey's Morgen, [19] as well as to the early Breton oral tradition of Morgan's figure, especially as her son there is named Mabuz, similar to the name of Modron's son Mabon ap Modron. While the fairy Modron is mother of Owain mab Urien in the Welsh myth, and Morgan would be assigned this role in the later literature, this first continental association between Yvain the romances' version of Owain and Morgan does not imply they are son and mother.

The earliest mention of Morgan as Yvain's mother is found in Tyolet , an early 13th-century Breton lai. It is believed that this character, though considered a male in Gereint , may be derived from Morgan le Fay, though this has been a matter of debate among Arthurian scholars since the 19th century the epithet Tud may be a Welsh or Breton cognate or borrowing of Old Irish tuath , "north, left", "sinister, wicked", also "fairy fay , elf".

Speculatively, Loomis and John Matthews further identified other perceived avatars of Morgan as the "Besieged Lady" archetype in various early works associated with the Castle of Maidens motif, often appearing as usually unnamed wife of King Lot and mother of Gawain.

A recently discovered moralistic manuscript written in Anglo-Norman French is the only known instance of medieval Arthurian literature presented as being composed by Morgan herself. This late 12th-century text is purportedly addressed to her court official and tells of the story of a knight called Piers the Fierce; it is likely that the author's motive was to draw a satirical moral from the downfall of the English knight Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall.

Morgayne is titled in it as "empress of the wilderness, queen of the damsels, lady of the isles, and governor of the waves of the great sea. Morgan's role was greatly expanded by the unknown authors possibly members of the Cistercian religious order, which might explain their demonisation of pagan motifs and fear of sexuality [7] of the earlyth-century Old French romances of the Vulgate Cycle also known as the Lancelot-Grail cycle and especially its subsequent rewrite, the Prose Tristan -influenced Post-Vulgate Cycle.

Her common image is now a malicious and cruel sorceress, the source of many intrigues at the royal court of Arthur and elsewhere. In some of the later works, she is also subversively working to take over Arthur's throne through her mostly harmful magic and scheming, including manipulating men.

This version of Morgan usually named Morgane or Morgain first appears in the few surviving verses of the Old French poem Merlin , which later served as the original source for the Vulgate Cycle and consequently also the Post-Vulgate Cycle. It was written c. In a popular tradition from later evolution of this narrative, Morgan is the youngest of the daughters of Igraine and Gorlois , the Duke of Cornwall. In the poem's prose version and its continuations, she has at least two elder sisters various manuscripts list up to five daughters and some do not mention Morgan being a bastard child [14] : Elaine of Garlot and the Queen of Orkney sometimes known as Morgause , the latter of whom is the mother of Arthur's knights Gawain, Agravain , Gaheris and Gareth by King Lot, and the traitor Mordred by Arthur in some romances the wife of King Lot is called Morcades, a name that R.

Loomis argued was another name of Morgan [66]. At a young age, Morgan is sent to a convent after Arthur's father Uther Pendragon , aided by the half-demon Merlin, kills Gorlois and rapes and marries her mother, who later gives him a son, Arthur which makes him Morgan's younger half-brother.

There, Morgan masters the seven arts and begins her study of magic, going on to specialise in astronomie astronomy and astrology and healing; [57] [67] the Prose Merlin describes her as "wonderfully adept" and "working hard all the time.

Uther or Arthur himself in the Post-Vulgate [14] betroths her to his ally, King Urien of Gor r e described as an Otherworldly northern British kingdom, possibly the historical Rheged. Now a queen but unhappy with her husband, Morgan serves as a lady-in-waiting for the high queen, Arthur's newly married young wife Guinevere. At first, Morgan and the also young Guinevere are close friends, even wearing shared near-identical rings.

This incident, introduced in the Prose Merlin and expanded in the Vulgate Lancelot [70] and the Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin the Huth Merlin , [14] begins a lifelong feud between Guinevere and Morgan, who leaves the court of Camelot with all her wealth to seek out Merlin and greater powers. The pregnant Morgan later gives a birth to Guiomar's son, who is not named in the story but is said to grow up to become a great knight. She then takes an unnamed knight as her new companion, until she discovers his affair with another woman, which leads to the creation of her magical domain known as the Val sans Retour the Vale of No Return , serving as an enchanted prison for false lovers.

In the Post-Vulgate, where Morgan's explicitly evil nature is stated and accented, she also works to destroy Arthur's rule and end his life, but the reasons for her initial hatred of him are never fully explained other than just an extreme antipathy towards the perfect goodness which he symbolises. In a conspiracy with the villainous lord Damas, Morgan plans for Accolon to use Arthur's own magic items against him in single combat, so she and her beloved Accolon would become the rulers.

As part of her convoluted plan, both Arthur and Accolon are spirited away from their hunt with Urien by a magical boat of twelve damsels. Confident of her coming victory, Morgan also attempts to murder her sleeping husband Urien with his own sword, but in this act she is stopped by their son Yvain Uwayne , who pardons her when she protests she has been under the devil's power and promises to abandon her wicked ways.

Pursued by Arthur for her betrayal, Morgan throws the scabbard into a lake, before temporarily turning herself and her entourage to stone, the sight of which makes Arthur think they have been already punished by God.

That action of Morgan ultimately causes the death of Arthur, who would otherwise be protected by the scabbard's magic in his final battle. On her way out, Morgan saves Arthur's knight named Manassen Manessen, Manasses from certain death and enables him to kill his captor when she learns Accolon was Manessen's cousin.

Now banished from Camelot, Morgan retires to her lands in Gore and then to her castle near the stronghold of Tauroc possibly in North Wales. However, her treacherous attempts to bring about Arthur's demise in the Suite are repeatedly frustrated by the king's new sorceress advisor Ninianne the Lady of the Lake.

Such is the case when Morgan sends Arthur a supposed offering of peace in the form of a rich mantle cloak; Morgan's messenger maiden is made put on the cursed gift and it burns her to cinders. It is possible that this motif was inspired by classical stories like that how Medea killed her rival for Jason 's affection [74] or how Deianira sent a poisoned tunic to Hercules.

Morgan also uses her skills in dealing with various of Arthur's Knights of the Round Table , especially the greatest of them all, Lancelot, whom she alternately tries to seduce and to expose as Guinevere's adulterous lover.

Her magic aside, Lancelot is always disempowered in his dealings with Morgan as he could never hurt a woman or fight a kin of his king, which allows the writers to make her a perfect foil for Lancelot as "the woman he most feared in the world. In one variation, she then takes possession of the lance that was used to kill Huneson, enchants it, and sends it to King Mark of Cornwall , her possible lover, [79] who years later uses it to slay Tristan.

Lancelot is Morgan's prime object of sexual desire but he consistently refuses her obsessive advances due to his great love of Guinevere, even as Morgan repeatedly courts, drugs, enchants or imprisons the knight. Their friendship is further tested when a quarrel over a handsome widower named Berengier captured by Sebile after Morgan kidnapped his child ends in a violent attack by Sebile that leaves Morgan half-dead; Morgan swears revenge, but their relationship is later restored.

Besides Lancelot, Morgan's fancied good knights include Tristan, but her interest in him turns into burning hatred of him and his true love Isolde after he kills her lover as introduced in the Prose Tristan Morgan does not become their enemy in the Italian versions. Nevertheless, Alexander promises to defend her castle of Fair Guard Belle Garde , where he has been held, for a year and a day, and then dutifully continues to guard it even after the castle gets burned down; [41] [83] this eventually leads to his death.

Morgan then captures Lancelot himself under her spell using a magic ring and keeps him prisoner in the hope Guinevere would then go mad or die of sorrow. She also otherwise torments Guinevere, causing her great distress and making her miserable until the Lady of the Lake gives her a ring that protects her from Morgan's power.

But one day, he wanders into Morgan's remote castle while on a hunting trip, and they meet and instantly reconcile with each other. Morgan welcomes him warmly and the king, overjoyed with their reunion, allows her to return to Camelot, but she refuses and declares her plan to move to the Isle of Avalon, "where the women live who know all the world's magic," to live there with other sorceresses.

However, disaster strikes when the sight of Lancelot's frescoes and Morgan's confession finally convinces Arthur about the truth to the rumours of the two's secret love affair about which he has been already warned by his nephew Agravain. This leads to a great conflict between Arthur and Lancelot, which brings down the fellowship of the Round Table. The goddess Fortune , who appears to Arthur to foretell his death towards the end the Vulgate Cycle, is regarded by some as a double for Morgan.

Depending on the manuscript, she is either the leading lady usually, being recognised by Girflet as the one holding Arthur's hand as he enters the boat , a subordinate to another who is unnamed, or neither of them are superior.

Arthur steps into her boat after Camlann but assures he is not going to return. His supposed grave is later said to be found mysteriously empty but for his helmet.

Middle English writer Thomas Malory follows the portrayals of Morgan from the Old French prose cycles in his lateth-century seminal work of the selective compilation book Le Morte d'Arthur The Death of Arthur , though he reduces her in role and detail of characterisation, in particular either removing or limiting her traditions of healing and prophecy, and making her more consistently and inherently evil just as he makes Merlin more good.

Nevertheless, she remains a medieval symbol of the potential danger of uncontrolled female power. In Malory's backstory, Morgan has studied astrology as well as nigremancie which might actually mean black magic in general rather than " necromancy " [95] in the nunnery where she was raised, before being married to Urien Uriens as a young teenager; in this narrative she did not study with Merlin.

She also plots an elaborate ambush in "The Book of Sir Tristram de Lyons", after learning of the death of one of her favourites in a tournament, but Tristan ends up killing or routing thirty of her knights when the ambush ends in a disaster. Morgan is widely feared and hated, so much that "many knights wished her burnt. In an episode that had been first introduced by the anonymous writer of the earlier Prose Lancelot , Lancelot rescues Elaine of Corbenic from being trapped in an enchanted boiling bath by Morgan and the Queen of the Northgales, both envious of Elaine's great beauty echoing Circe 's treatment of Scylla [14].

However, despite all of their prior hostility towards each other and her numerous designs directed against Arthur personally and his own promise to get a terrible revenge on her as long as he lives [58] , Malory's Morgan is still redeemed and is one of the four grieving enchantress queens the others being Nimue, marking the end of conflict between her and Morgan, [96] and two of Morgan's allies, the Queen of the Northgales and the Queen of the Wasteland who arrive in a black boat to transport the wounded king to Avalon in the end.

Unlike in the French and earlier stories on which Le Morte d'Arthur is based, and where Morgan and Arthur would either have first made peace or have just never fought to begin with, here her change of attitude towards him is sudden and unexplained. Morgan also appears in some other English texts, such as the earlyth-century Anglo-Norman Roman de Waldef where she is only "name-dropped" as a minor character.

Entering her boat she is not named in the scene, but addresses him as her brother , Arthur believes he is going to be healed, yet his tomb is later discovered by Bedivere. Morgan's importance to this particular narrative has been disputed and called a deus ex machina [] and simply an artistic device to further connect Gawain's episode to the Arthurian legend, but some regard her as a central character and the driving force of the plot.

Morgan further turns up throughout the Western European literature of the High and Late Middle Ages in a variety of roles, generally in works related to the cycles of Arthur the Matter of Britain or Charlemagne the Matter of France. They often feature Morgan as a lover and benefactor and sometimes opponent, especially when being turned down of various heroes, sometimes also introducing her additional offspring or alternate siblings, or connecting her closer with the figure of the Lady of the Lake.

There, they lure and ensnare many hundreds of young and attractive knights, who then spend the rest of their lives in the palace. In the legends of Charlemagne, she is associated with the Danish legendary hero Ogier the Dane : following his initial epics, when he is years old, the fairy queen Morgan restores him to his youthful form but removes his memory, then takes him to her mystical island palace in Avalon where Arthur and Gawain are also still alive to be her lover for years.

She later protects him during his adventures in the mortal world as he defends France from Muslim invasion, before his eventual return to Avalon. The island of Avalon is often described as an otherworldly place ruled by Morgan in other later texts from all over Western Europe, especially these written in Iberia.

In his 14th-century Catalan poem La faula , Guillem de Torroella claims to have himself having visited the Enchanted Isle and met Arthur who has been brought back to life by the fay Morgan Morgan la feya , Morguan la fea [29] and they both are now forever young due to the power of the Holy Grail.

Artorius Dux Belloram

Glastonbury has more more to offer than play host to an annual music festival; its also home to the ruins of Glastonbury Abbey. Reputed to The Discovery of King Arthur - an oldie but goodie; a s edition of which was Kim Headlee's introduction to historical Arthurian studies. I had been asked by a publisher to consider writing a history of Bristol and the West Country. There are lots of books published about this part of England, so I said that I would only do it if I felt there was something new to be said.

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Sacrificing Fiction and the Quest for the Real King Arthur

Access options available:. Foreword by Allan Massie. London: Dent, ; New York: Routledge,

Part of the pre-release publicity blitz accompanying the film King Arthur 1 was The Quest for King Arthur 2 , an independently produced documentary aired by the History Channel in the weeks preceding the release of the Hollywood film. This version of the documentary unlike the original version, available for purchase on the History Channel website includes supplemental narration provided by Ioan Gruffudd, the actor who plays Lancelot in the film. The documentary, in turn, was promoted by a supplement included in The New York Times.

Camelot, King Arthur & the Knights of the Round Table

The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain and Brittany , and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur. It was one of the three great story cycles recalled repeatedly in medieval literature, together with the Matter of France , which concerned the legends of Charlemagne , and the Matter of Rome , which included material derived from or inspired by classical mythology. The name distinguishes and relates the Matter of Britain from the mythological themes taken from classical antiquity , the " Matter of Rome ", and the tales of the Paladins of Charlemagne and their wars with the Moors and Saracens , which constituted the " Matter of France ". King Arthur is the chief subject of the Matter of Britain, along with stories related to the legendary kings of Britain , as well as lesser-known topics related to the history of Great Britain and Brittany , such as the stories of Brutus of Troy , Coel Hen , Leir of Britain King Lear , and Gogmagog. The legendary history of Britain was created partly to form a body of patriotic myth for the country. Several agendas thus can be seen in this body of literature.

By some miracle she still had her purse, their money. His mother climbed in the middle and Silas sat by the door, which was cold. Still, he pressed against it, shivering, his feet cold in his socks. They all full by now, the decent ones anyway. When he opened them it was warmer, his socked feet dry under the heater, and he heard Alice talking again, her chatting no longer afraid, she was happy because Charles was driving them all the way to wherever they were going. Only two candles were lit, one at either end of the mantel-shelf.

Foreword by Allan Massie. London: Dent, ; New York: Routledge, White says of his anthology that its ninety-six selections show 'how the Arthurian legend developed over a period ofover five hundred years' xvi. The selections actually cover almost a millennium; they range from Gildas c. They appear in seven chronologically-ordered sections: 'Early Works' Gildas through William of Malmesbury, c. White's Introduction xv-xxv contains briefsummaries of the chieftextual traditions represented in his anthology and brief comments thereupon. The eighteen photographs between pp.


Presenting selections from medieval Latin, Welsh, English, French and German literature, Richard White traces the Arthurian legend from the earliest mentions.


Course Overview

Early appearances of Morgan do not elaborate her character beyond her role as a goddess, a fay , a witch , or a sorceress, generally benevolent and related to King Arthur as his magical saviour and protector. Her prominence increased over time, as did her moral ambivalence, and in some texts there is an evolutionary transformation of her to an antagonist , particularly as portrayed in cyclical prose such as the Lancelot-Grail and the Post-Vulgate Cycle. A significant aspect in many of Morgan's medieval and later iterations is the unpredictable duality of her nature, with potential for both good and evil. Her character may have been rooted in Welsh mythology as well as other earlier myths and historical figures. The earliest account, by Geoffrey of Monmouth in Vita Merlini , refers to Morgan in conjunction with the Isle of Apples Avalon , which is where Arthur was carried after being fatally wounded in the Battle of Camlann. In the Robert de Boron -derived French prose versions and the works based on them, including among them Thomas Malory 's influential Le Morte d'Arthur , she is usually described as the youngest daughter of Arthur's mother, Igraine , and her first husband, Gorlois. Morgan unhappily marries Urien with whom she has a son, Yvain.

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Сегодняшний день стал для него днем сплошных фиаско. То, что началось как в высшей степени патриотическая миссия, самым неожиданным образом вышло из-под контроля. Коммандер был вынужден принимать невероятные решения, совершать чудовищные поступки, на которые, как ему казалось раньше, не был способен. Это единственное решение.

 Смотрите. На экран выплыла надпись: КЛЮЧ К ШИФРУ-УБИЙЦЕ ПОДТВЕРЖДЕН - Укрепить защитные стены! - приказал Джабба. Но Соши, опередив его, уже отдала команду. - Утечка прекратилась! - крикнул техник.

Кто будет охранять охранников. - подумала .

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    Presenting selections from medieval Latin, Welsh, English, French and German literature, Richard White traces the Arthurian legend from the.

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