File Name: microbiology laboratory equipments and their uses .zip
Autoclave 2. Incubator 3. Hot air oven 4.
- 29 Equipment’s Every Microbiology Laboratory Should Have
- Instruments used in microbiology
- Basic Equipment and Microbiological Techniques for Studying Bacterial Adhesion
Instruments used specially in microbiology include:  . As well as those "used in microbiological sterilization and disinfection" see relevant section. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
29 Equipment’s Every Microbiology Laboratory Should Have
A modern microbiology laboratory should be furnished with the following equipment. Liquid substances, such as prepared media and saline solutions cannot be sterilized in oven, as they lose water due to evaporation.
An oven Figure 3. The thermostat dial reading is approximate and the exact temperature is read by introducing a thermometer into the oven or on a built-in L-shaped thermometer. In a modern oven Figure 3. Time is set by a digital timer. The required temperature is set. After the oven attains the set temperature, the required time of sterilization is set on the timer. The oven switches off automatically after the set time. The oven is opened, only after its temperature comes down near to room temperature.
Autoclave is the nucleus of a microbiology laboratory. It has the same working principle as a domestic pressure cooker. This temperature is sufficient to kill only the non-spore formers, but it is difficult to kill the spore-forming bacteria at this temperature, as they escape by forming heat resistant spores.
It takes very long time to kill the spores at this temperature. This high temperature is required to kill all the bacteria including the heat resistant spore-formers. Steam temperature increases with increase in steam pressure Table 3. In operating a standard vertical autoclave, Figure 3. If water is too less, the bottom of the autoclave gets dried during heating and further heating damages it.
If it has in-built water heating element, Figure 3. On the other hand, if there is too much water, it takes long time to reach the required temperature.
The materials to be sterilized are covered with craft paper and arranged on an aluminium or wooden frame kept on the bottom of the autoclave, otherwise if the materials remain half-submerged or floating, they tumble during boiling and water may enter.
The autoclave is closed perfectly airtight only keeping the steam release valve open. Then, it is heated over flame or by the in-built heating element. Air inside the autoclave should be allowed to escape completely through this valve. When water vapour is seen to escape through the valve, it is closed. Temperature and pressure inside goes on increasing. The pressure increase is observed on the pressure dial.
The required time is considered from the point, when the required temperature-pressure is attained. Once required temperature-pressure is attained, it is maintained by controlling the heating source. After the specified time 15 minutes , heating is discontinued and steam release valve slightly opened.
If fully opened immediately, due to sudden fall in pressure, liquids may spill out from the containers. Gradually, the steam release is opened more and more, so as to allow all steam to escape.
The autoclave is opened only after the pressure drops back to normal atmospheric pressure 0 psi. The autoclave should never be opened, when there is still pressure inside. The hot sterilized materials are removed by holding them with a piece of clean cloth or asbestos- coated hand gloves. In case of a steam-jacketed horizontal autoclave, a boiler produces the steam Figure 3. It is released at a designated pressure, into the outer chamber jacket. Air is allowed to escape and then its steam release valve is closed.
The hot jacket heats the inner chamber, thereby heating the materials to be sterilised. This prevents condensation of steam on the materials. Now, steam under pressure is released from the jacket into the inner chamber and air is allowed to escape from it.
Then, its steam release valve is closed. The autoclave also has automatic shutting system i. Besides the pressure dial, it also has separate temperature dial to indicate the temperature inside the inner chamber. Moreover, the autoclave maintains the temperature and pressure automatically and switches off after the set time of sterilization. Profuse growth of microbes is obtained in the laboratory by growing them at suitable temperatures. This is done by inoculating the desired microbe into a suitable culture medium and then incubating it at the temperature optimum for its growth.
Incubation is done in an incubator Figure 3. As most of the microbes pathogenic to man grow profusely at body temperature of normal human being i.
The incubator has a thermostat, which maintains a constant temperature, set according to requirement. The temperature reading on the thermostat is approximate. Accurate temperature can be seen on the thermometer fixed on the incubator.
Exact temperature, as per requirement, is set by rotating the thermostat knob by trial and error and noting the temperature on the thermometer. Most of the modern incubators Figure 3. Here, the operator sets the desired temperature and the required period of time. The incubator automatically maintains it accordingly. Moisture is supplied by placing a beaker of water in the incubator during the growth period.
A moist environment retards the dehydration of the media and thereby, avoids spurious experimental results. Some microbes are to be grown at lower temperatures for specific purposes. The BOD low temperature incubator Figure 3. The constant desired temperature is set by rotating the knob of the thermostat. Rotation of the thermostat knob moves a needle on a dial showing approximate temperature. Exact required temperature is obtained, by rotating the knob finely by trial and error and noting the temperature on the thermometer fixed on the incubator.
Most of the modern BOD incubators Figure 3. Stock cultures of bacteria are also stored in it between sub-culturing periods. It is also used for the storage of sterilized media, so as to prevent their dehydration.
It is used for weighing large quantities of media and other chemicals, where precise weighing is not of much importance. It is used to weigh chemicals and samples precisely. Weighing takes more time, for which it is used in emergency only. Water is used in the preparation of media and reagents.
If the media are prepared using tap water, the chemical impurities present in it may interfere with the growth of the microorganisms in the media. Moreover, the higher is the bacteria content of the media, the longer is the time required for their sterilization and greater is the chance of survival of some bacteria. Distilled water, though not bacteria- free, contains less number of bacteria.
That is why; it is preferred in the preparation of microbiological media. It is also used in the preparation of reagents, because the chemical impurities present in tap water may interfere with the proper functioning of the reagent chemicals.
Usually a distilled water plant is made of steel or brass. It is also called distilled water still. It has one inlet to be connected to the water tap and two outlets, one for distilled water to drop into a container and the other for the flow out of hot cooling water into the sink. The still is installed on the wall.
It is heated by in-built electric heating elements immersion heater. The still works efficiently, when the water in-flow is so adjusted that, the temperature of the cooling water flowing out from the still into the sink is neither too high nor too low i.
The distilled water may contain traces of metals corroded from the steel or brass container. To get metal-free distilled water, glass distillation apparatus is used and still better is quartz distillation apparatus.
However, for a microbiology laboratory, a steel or glass distillation apparatus is sufficient. For precision analyses, double- or triple- distilled water is used. For precision analytical works, now-a-days, instead of using double- or triple-distilled water, micro- filtered water is used.
In case of distilled water, there is chance that, few volatile substances present in the water get volatilized during heating of the water and subsequently get condensed into the distilled water collected. Thus, there may be traces of such substances in the distilled water. To overcome this, ultrapure water is used. Here, water is allowed to pass through very fine microscopic pores, which retain the microscopic suspended particle including the microbes.
Then, the water passes through two columns of ion exchange resins. The anion exchange resin adsorbs the captions present in the water, while the caption exchange resin adsorbs the anions. The water that comes out is extremely pure. For microbiological analysis, liquid samples are directly used, whereas solid samples have to be mixed thoroughly with a diluents usually physiological saline , so as to get a homogenous suspension of bacteria.
This suspension is assumed to contain bacteria homogenously. The mixing of solid samples and diluents is done by a homogenizer, in which a motor rotates an impeller with sharp blades at high speed inside the closed homogenizer cup containing the sample and the diluents.
It has a speed regulator for controlling the speed of rotation of the impeller. In some laboratories mixing is done manually by sterilized pestle and mortar. In modern laboratories, a disposable bag is used, inside which the solid sample and liquid diluents are put aseptically and mixed mechanically by peristaltic action of a machine on the bag.
Instruments used in microbiology
A modern microbiology laboratory should be furnished with the following equipment. Liquid substances, such as prepared media and saline solutions cannot be sterilized in oven, as they lose water due to evaporation. An oven Figure 3. The thermostat dial reading is approximate and the exact temperature is read by introducing a thermometer into the oven or on a built-in L-shaped thermometer. In a modern oven Figure 3.
Basic Equipment and Microbiological Techniques for Studying Bacterial Adhesion
In the laboratory, eight main types of instruments are used:- 1. Balance 2. Centrifug e 3.
Handbook of Bacterial Adhesion pp Cite as. The knowledge of laboratory safety, major equipment, and basic microbiological techniques are essential for conducting studies on bacterial adhesion. This chapter is written for beginners in the field of microbiology and for nonmicrobiologists who want to set up a laboratory for conducting bacterial adhesion studies. For a beginner, it is a good idea to visit a nearby microbiology laboratory either before or after reading this chapter.
Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards: Updated Version.
Chemistry Lab Equipment List Pdf. Laboratory definition is - a place equipped for experimental study in a science or for testing and analysis; broadly : a place providing opportunity for experimentation, observation, or practice in a field of study. This is a far from comprehensive list. An ammeter is used to measure the amount of current in a circuit. Since we expect to run equipment to failure, we will require a large material inventory of repair parts.
Microbiology International was formed to provide the best microbiology automation from around the world to the modern laboratory. Since conception in , we have added rapid detection kits and consumable products for pathogen detection to our product line. Our equipment quickly automates tedious, manual lab processes and when combined with our ability to provide customized culture media products, we are able to make your laboratory as efficient as possible. Our mission, in combination with our commitment to superior technical support and customer service, enables us to supply systems that increase laboratory productivity, save money and improve the quality and consistency of data generated. Anaerobic culture stations are now an important feature in microbiology laboratories. When there is a need to easily process, culture and examine samples without exposure to atmospheric oxygen, a Whitley Workstation provides the solution. Purchasing a laboratory sterilizer from Microbiology International insures you are receiving the highest quality and most advanced autoclave available on the market.
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