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An investigation on the forms of information sources and services utilised among rural dwellers from public libraries in the North-West zone of Nigeria.

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An investigation on the forms of information sources and services utilised among rural dwellers from public libraries in the North-West zone of Nigeria. Badamasi B. Mohammed; Francis Garaba. Hence, the model was adopted to underpin the current study. A structured questionnaire was designed and personally administered to the study participants. The quantitative data were analysed using the SPSS software and descriptive statistics RESULTS : Despite the fact that most of the rural dwellers in the North-West zone of Nigeria are non-literate people, it is evident from the results that there is utilisation of various forms of information sources and services from public libraries.

The predominant forms of information sources utilised among rural dwellers from the libraries were printed materials, posters, flyers and audiovisuals. It is evident that most of the library users among rural dwellers were those who were literate, as the non-literate people who were the majority did not patronise the libraries. Thus, this study will assist authorities of the public libraries in the area under study to provide relevant and effective information sources and services to rural dwellers for sustainable rural development.

Keywords : Utilisation; information sources; information services; public libraries; rural dwellers. Information is a vital tool for addressing societal challenges for sustainable development. Rural people need information for the development of their communities in various spheres of life Momodu Information comes in various formats and languages, targeted at various categories of users.

Tabor noted that people in rural areas are more accustomed to oral tradition and can better relate to information exchanged in that way. Public libraries have an important role in the provision of relevant and effective information sources and services in formats and languages best understood by rural dwellers for sustainable development. Thus, the development of any rural community is a positive indicator of the development of a nation, and information dissemination through public libraries is an essential ingredient in the development of rural communities Sultana Ejedafiru argues that rural populace cannot become knowledgeable and powerful if they do not have relevant information to empower their thinking and enhance their understanding.

Information sources serve as a means of disseminating or communicating information to rural dwellers. Thus, information sources or channels are considered the most important aspect of an information system in a society Williamson Anyanwu is of the opinion that no matter how relevant information might be, if it is wrongly packaged or transferred, it will never reach the target audience successfully.

Wilson's model suggests that information-seeking behaviour arises from the recognition of a need perceived by an information user, who, in order to satisfy that need, seeks information from formal or informal sources that may result in success or failure.

Therefore, it is universally accepted that the improvement in the living conditions of a population largely depends on the appropriate channel used in disseminating information to that population Momodu Therefore, the provision of effective information services is the main aim of public libraries in order to satisfy the information needs of their users. Review of related literature. Effective dissemination of information to rural dwellers requires the choice of appropriate information sources or channels.

Chinwe, Ogbonna and Osuchukwu carried out research with a focus on information needs of rural dwellers in Nigeria and found that the information sources available in local information centres included textbooks, newspapers or magazines, picture books, audiovisuals, television and radio, among others.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO of the United Nations , in rural areas information, knowledge and skills meant for development are exchanged between farmers, extension or advisory officers, information providers and researchers through personal contact or through media such as radio, print and, more recently, the new information and communication technologies ICTs.

Furthermore, information sources facilitate the information-seeking activities of library users in seeking and satisfying their information needs from public libraries. Aina's library-extension service linkage model suggests that information materials, such as audio- and videocassettes, audio- and videorecording players, films, projectors, posters and leaflets on agriculture are expected to be collected by the library and serve as channels for information transfer to rural dwellers.

The issues surrounding the utilisation of public libraries' information sources and services among rural dwellers have attracted the attention of many scholars and writers around the world.

For example, in the USA, Hildreth clearly pointed out that there was serious concern about the future of rural libraries and indicated that the rural libraries are at a turning point. A study by Sultana found that little attention had been given to the role of rural public libraries in the overall development in India.

Sultana observed that rural libraries have not been developed, and that the principal victims have been the rural communities, who, because of information poverty, lack the individual means of becoming literate, and because of their level of illiteracy, poverty or poor health.

Nyana observed that the major hindrances to effective provision of information and services in Africa were inappropriate collections, high levels of illiteracy and lack of incorporating oral tradition into the provision of information services, among others. Salman, Mostert and Mugwisi opine that in Africa, public libraries should be charged with the responsibility of providing information services to support local businesses and economic and workforce development, among others.

In China, Zou and Zou reported that the information needs of elderly people in rural communities revolved around physiological needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, action, healthcare and pension policy information.

In Asia, research from Malaysia Yusop et al. Research conducted by Uzuegbu concurred that mass media, and other sources or channels such as information systems, education and training, agents, personal contacts and miscellaneous channels, were the right channels of disseminating information in the rural areas. As regards the information services, studies from Nigeria by Omopupa , Ebiwolate , Saleh and Lasisi , Enemute and Okorodudu , Oyeronke , Akinola et al.

Others include telephone, recreational and advisory services, current awareness, selective dissemination of information, bookmobiles, referral services, translation services, outreach and extension services, adult literacy programmes, audiovisual services, packaging and repackaging of information services and many more.

The above discussion, indicates that there is an existing knowledge gap in the literature, as it is silent on the situation on utilisation of public libraries' information sources and services among rural dwellers in the North-West zone of Nigeria.

This is what this study seeks to address through empirical investigation. Theoretical framework. Wilson's model of information behaviour was adopted to explain the forms of information sources and services utilised among rural dwellers from public libraries in the area under study. Figure 1 suggests that Wilson's model of information behaviour was adequate in addressing all the research questions in this study.

The basic and relevant construct in the model that guided the current study in addressing the research questions were information needs, sources, services and use. Wilson's model of information behaviour suggests that information-seeking behaviour arises as a result of a need perceived by an information user, who, in order to satisfy that need, makes demands upon formal or informal information sources or services, which result in success or failure Wilson Thus, the basis of this study was on these constructs of the model.

Accordingly, the following research questions were addressed:. What are the information needs of rural dwellers in the North-West zone of Nigeria? To what extent are information sources and services utilised among rural dwellers from public libraries in the North-West zone of Nigeria?

What forms of information sources and services are utilised among rural dwellers from public libraries in the North-West zone of Nigeria? The study was carried out in 52 functional branch or public libraries in local government areas in the zone under study.

These libraries were established to cater for the information needs of rural communities. Thus, they are controlled by the public library boards of Kaduna, Katsina, Jigawa, Kebbi and Zamfara states.

A survey research method was used to carry out this study. The study population comprised two groups of participants. The first group of participants involved 10 registered library users aged 18 years and above , which included both literate and illiterate people. The second group comprised 52 heads of the branch libraries. The total population for each of the two groups in each of the five states is presented in Table 1. For the sample size, all the 52 heads of functional branch or public libraries in the local government across the study area were recruited automatically because their population was small.

A sample of participants were also recruited from the 10 registered library users, using Krejcie and Morgan's theory of determining the sample size. Because the population of the library users is very large, sampling is necessary. According to Krejcie and Morgan's theory of determining the sample size, if the total population of a study falls between 10 and 14 , then the sample should be participants.

To ensure proportional representativeness in the sample size, a proportionate random sampling technique criteria was used to recruit the participants. This technique was chosen in order to ensure that the researcher does not leave the representativeness of the sample entirely to chance as suggested by Abbas It also ensures that the sample is similar to the population of the study in certain respects based on the total population from each state.

Thus, in recruiting the participants, the researcher used a formula recommended by Krejcie and Morgan's theory of determining the sample size, as presented below:. Thus, the sample size for the library users in each of the five states under study is proportionately calculated as follows see Equation 2 and Table 2 :.

Table 2 indicates that the total sample size for this study comprised 52 heads of functional branch or public libraries in the local government areas and library users. In total, the sample size for the study is participants. Two sets of questionnaires were designed to collect data from both groups of participants and a Likert scale technique was used. The participants were presented with a range of answer options to indicate whether they strongly agreed, agreed, disagreed, strongly disagreed or were not sure about each item question.

The questionnaire for the library users was also translated into Hausa for non-literate library users. Hausa is the common language spoken across the zone under study. The questionnaires were administered personally by the researcher with the help of research assistants. The English version questionnaire was self-completed, while the translated questionnaire was interviewer-completed.

In essence, it was read out to the non-literate participants at the site of data collection for their effective responses. The research assistants were trained on how to administer both the English version and Hausa-translated questionnaires.

Thus, the questionnaires were designed to collect data on information needs of rural dwellers, information sources and services utilised among the library users as rural dwellers. The responses to each of the items on the questionnaires are presented and analysed in tables of frequencies and percentages using SPSS software and descriptive statistics. As regards the ethical considerations, the ethical requirements of the Humanities and Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal were strictly adhered to.

During the data collection process the researcher, who is versed in Hausa language explained the main purpose of the study to the participants for clarification. This was done to reassure them of total confidentiality and develop trust. They were assured that the information elicited from them would be used strictly for academic purposes.

Informed consent forms were introduced to the participants in order to obtain their consent for participation in the study. This was also done to assure them of their anonymity and their rights to withdraw from the research at any time without any consequences.

Presentation and analysis of results. A total of and 51 questionnaires were duly completed and retrieved from the library users and heads of branch libraries, respectively, with a response rate of This was achieved as a result of the strong follow-ups as well as the employment of research assistants in the administration and retrieval of the research instruments.

Demographic variables of the participants. The findings of this study reveal that men dominated the study population more than women. This indicates that there were more men involved in the utilisation of public library services in the area under study.

Only three 5. As regards the users, This development can basically be attributed to the religious and cultural restrictions on women in this geo-political zone. The study also found that the common age among the heads of the branch libraries was generally 45 years and above, with a few below 45 years.

Thus, the majority of the heads of branch libraries were mature, middle-aged people. The most common age group of the library users ranged from 18 to 27 years and from 28 to 37 years.

Information Sources in the Medical Sciences

This comprehensive provides the overviews of different types of reference sources, such as encyclopaedias, directories, yearbooks, dictionaries, geographical sources, biographical sources, statistical sources, handbooks and others. The book is organized into four parts. Part I Reference Sources deals with various types of information sources such as documentary and non-documentary sources. Part II Reference and Information Services discusses various types of reference services, organisation of reference section and the role of the librarian in the digital age. The book is intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of library science. Besides, it will also be very useful for working librarians, information scientists, and information professionals.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Sadu Ranganadham.

Objectives: To study about the information sources and services, different types of resources Portable Document File (PDF) format, and uploaded to the library.

Popoola , University of Ibadan, Nigeria Follow. This article investigates the effects of the use of information sources and services on the research output of social scientists in the Nigerian federal government-owned universities. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used for sample selection. The study found no significant difference between male and female use of information sources in social science research. The mean number of journals read on a regular basis by the respondents is seven.

Such writing or commentary is well suited to quick communication and often includes brief postings on topics of conversation between the author and reader. Some columnists and writers for traditional publications also publish blogs to extend their interaction with readers.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of information sources and services of public library. The result of the study shows that In this context, the public library should procure more number of books which are more relevant to the students.

There are so many different types of information on the Internet, it is sometimes difficult to identify what you see on the screen. Knowing the type of information you need or are hoping to find will help in accessing the information and using it appropriately. Review the broad categories below to help identify different types of information formats and publications. The terms, periodicals, serials, journals, and magazines can and often are used interchangeably.

 - Панк снова сплюнул в проход.  - Чтоб мы не надоедали. - Значит, я не могу сойти. Парень захохотал. - Доедешь до конечной остановки, приятель.

The present study of utilization of information resource and services by library user community conducted at Lalaji Memorial Omega International School in.

Use of Information Sources and Services in Public Libraries: A Study

Шум и мелькающие огни в шифровалке делали ее похожей на стартовую площадку ракеты. Хейл зашевелился и в ответ на каждое завывание сирены начал моргать. Неожиданно для самой себя Сьюзан схватила беретту, и Хейл, открыв глаза, увидел ее, стоящую с револьвером в руке, нацеленным ему в низ живота. - Где ключ? - потребовала. Хейл с трудом пришел в .

Сьюзан потеряла счет времени, потраченного на ожидание Следопыта. Два часа. Три. Она перевела взгляд на пустую шифровалку. Скорее бы просигналил ее терминал. Но тот молчал. Конец лета.

Все было совсем не. - Да вы не стесняйтесь, сеньор. Мы служба сопровождения, нас нечего стесняться. Красивые девушки, спутницы для обеда и приемов и все такое прочее. Кто дал вам наш номер. Уверен, наш постоянный клиент.

 Оно будет громадным, - застонал Джабба.

О небо. Только подумайте. Беккер встревожился: - Так кольца у вас. - Боже мой, конечно. Беккер ощутил тупую боль в желудке.

Он опустил руку и отвернулся, а повернувшись к ней снова, увидел, что она смотрит куда-то поверх его плеча, на стену. Там, в темноте, ярко сияла клавиатура. Стратмор проследил за ее взглядом и нахмурился Он надеялся, что Сьюзан не заметит эту контрольную панель. Эта светящаяся клавиатура управляла его личным лифтом. Стратмор и его высокопоставленные посетители попадали в шифровалку и уходили незаметно для остальных сотрудников.

Она пыталась осознать истинный смысл случившегося. Всю свою жизнь она посвятила взламыванию шифров, отвергая саму возможность разработки абсолютно стойкого шифра. Любой шифр можно взломать - так гласит принцип Бергофского. Она чувствовала себя атеистом, лицом к лицу столкнувшимся с Господом Богом.

Мне не нужно напоминать. Через тридцать секунд она уже сидела за его столом и изучала отчет шифровалки. - Видишь? - спросил Бринкерхофф, наклоняясь над ней и показывая цифру.

Компьютер однократно пискнул.

 Нет, коммандер! - вскрикнула Сьюзан.  - Нет. Хейл сжал ее горло. - Если вы вызовете службу безопасности, она умрет. Стратмор вытащил из-под ремня мобильник и набрал номер.

 - Когда я все закончу, я сообщу тебе код вызова лифта. И тогда ты решишь, уходить тебе или. Повисла долгая тишина. Сьюзан словно во сне подошла и села с ним .

 Вам нужен ключ. Я поняла так, что весь смысл в том, чтобы его уничтожить. - Верно.

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