File Name: human evolution processes and adaptations .zip
- The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program
- Environmental analysis in human evolution and adaptation research
- Major transitions in human evolution
Human evolution and ecology analyses argue that environment is a major factor influencing biological and sociocultural adaptation, but they rarely analyze environmental properties. Multiple problems of perspective and method can arise from the normative and nondynamic environmental descriptions which pervade these analyses. This paper examines human adaptation frameworks to identify theoretical guidelines for environmental description in ways appropriate to available theories of biocultural evolution or congruent with known ecosystem qualities. Concepts and terminology are given for describing the spatial and temporal properties characteristic of ecosystems and central to hypotheses about ecological adaptation.
The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program
Human evolution , the process by which human beings developed on Earth from now-extinct primates. Viewed zoologically, we humans are Homo sapiens , a culture-bearing upright-walking species that lives on the ground and very likely first evolved in Africa about , years ago. We are now the only living members of what many zoologists refer to as the human tribe, Hominini , but there is abundant fossil evidence to indicate that we were preceded for millions of years by other hominins, such as Ardipithecus , Australopithecus , and other species of Homo , and that our species also lived for a time contemporaneously with at least one other member of our genus , H. In addition, we and our predecessors have always shared Earth with other apelike primates, from the modern-day gorilla to the long-extinct Dryopithecus. That we and the extinct hominins are somehow related and that we and the apes , both living and extinct , are also somehow related is accepted by anthropologists and biologists everywhere. Yet the exact nature of our evolutionary relationships has been the subject of debate and investigation since the great British naturalist Charles Darwin published his monumental books On the Origin of Species and The Descent of Man
Environmental analysis in human evolution and adaptation research
The scale of human cooperation is an evolutionary puzzle. All of the available evidence suggests that the societies of our Pliocene ancestors were like those of other social primates, and this means that human psychology has changed in ways that support larger, more cooperative societies that characterize modern humans. In this paper, we argue that cultural adaptation is a key factor in these changes. Over the last million years or so, people evolved the ability to learn from each other, creating the possibility of cumulative, cultural evolution. Rapid cultural adaptation also leads to persistent differences between local social groups, and then competition between groups leads to the spread of behaviours that enhance their competitive ability. Then, in such culturally evolved cooperative social environments, natural selection within groups favoured genes that gave rise to new, more pro-social motives. Moral systems enforced by systems of sanctions and rewards increased the reproductive success of individuals who functioned well in such environments, and this in turn led to the evolution of other regarding motives like empathy and social emotions like shame.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation , genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation. The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was conceived independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the midth century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species. This is followed by three observable facts about living organisms: 1 traits vary among individuals with respect to their morphology, physiology and behaviour phenotypic variation , 2 different traits confer different rates of survival and reproduction differential fitness and 3 traits can be passed from generation to generation heritability of fitness. In the early 20th century, other competing ideas of evolution such as mutationism and orthogenesis were refuted as the modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics , which established adaptive evolution as being caused by natural selection acting on Mendelian genetic variation. All life on Earth shares a last universal common ancestor LUCA    that lived approximately 3. Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped by repeated formations of new species speciation , changes within species anagenesis and loss of species extinction throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth.
Major transitions in human evolution
Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago.
The Zoo educator will guide students through the Zoo to explore adaptations of animals to their environments. Students will work through examples of different evolutionary processes that have led to the diversity of life on Earth. Working with model skulls and stone tools, students will try to piece together the human evolution process. Our email newsletter keeps you up to date with what's happening at the Zoo. Wellington Zoo is the world's first carboNZero certified zoo.
However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. Four questions are addressed: 1 Is there a major divide between early australopithecine and later Homo evolution? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.
Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Эти слова буквально преследовали. Она попыталась выбросить их из головы.
Ядерное делениеядерный синтез A) деление (атомная бомба) и синтез (водородная бомба) B) U-235, U-238 и плутоний III. История атомного оружия A) разработка (Манхэттенский проект) B) взрыв 1) Хиросима 2) Нагасаки 3) побочные продукты атомного взрыва 4) зоны поражения - Раздел второй! - сразу же воскликнула Сьюзан. - Уран и плутоний. Давай. Все ждали, когда Соши откроет нужный раздел.
Думаю, англичанка. И с какими-то дикими волосами - красно-бело-синими. Беккер усмехнулся, представив это зрелище. - Может быть, американка? - предположил. - Не думаю, - сказала Росио.
Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами.
Запах показался ей смутно знакомым, и эта мысль пронзила ее холодом. Сьюзан представила себе Хейла в западне, в окутанной паром ловушке. Может быть, он что-нибудь поджег. Она посмотрела на вентиляционный люк и принюхалась.
Итальянец засмеялся. Он явно не верил своим ушам. - Dov'ela plata. Где деньги. Беккер достал из кармана пять ассигнаций по десять тысяч песет и протянул мотоциклисту.
Капля Росы. Вы уверены. Но Пьер Клушар провалился в глубокое забытье. ГЛАВА 23 Сьюзан, сидя в одиночестве в уютном помещении Третьего узла, пила травяной чай с лимоном и ждала результатов запуска Следопыта.