File Name: meritocracy and economic inequality .zip
There are wide varieties of economic inequality , most notably measured using the distribution of income the amount of money people are paid and the distribution of wealth the amount of wealth people own. Besides economic inequality between countries or states, there are important types of economic inequality between different groups of people. Important types of economic measurements focus on wealth , income , and consumption.
- Economic inequality
- Journal of Interdisciplinary History
- Social inequality
- Meritocracy and economic inequality
According to research, people believe they can overcome inequality — even in the most unequal places. Despite a growing body of evidence showing that income inequality is linked to lower well-being, income inequality continues to be on the rise in many countries around the world. If income inequality is overwhelmingly bad for most people in a society, why do those who live in the most unequal of places put up with it? The authors find that people put up with high levels of inequality for two reasons: first, people generally care deeply about where they stand in terms of earnings within a group — for example, whether they are the 5th or 40th highest-paid person in their workplace. Second, people derive more satisfaction from being at the top of the income ranks in more unequal societies, where the pursuit of rank and status is more likely to be seen as a desirable life goal.
Journal of Interdisciplinary History
While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. Most Americans strongly favor equality of opportunity if not outcome, but many are weary of poverty's seeming immunity to public policy. This helps to explain the recent attention paid to cultural and genetic explanations of persistent poverty, including claims that economic inequality is a function of intellectual ability, as well as more subtle depictions of the United States as a meritocracy where barriers to achievement are personal--either voluntary or inherited--rather than systemic. This volume of original essays by luminaries in the economic, social, and biological sciences, however, confirms mounting evidence that the connection between intelligence and inequality is surprisingly weak and demonstrates that targeted educational and economic reforms can reduce the income gap and improve the country's aggregate productivity and economic well-being. It also offers a novel agenda of equal access to valuable associations.
Journal of Interdisciplinary History A meritocracy is an economy and society that rewards effort and ability, not family background. Sounds good. But individual ability is often inherited; educational attainment is influenced by family background; and effort and ability are often correlated. Complicating matters further, why is it "just" to reward ability? The twelve papers in Meritocracy and Economic Inequality address various aspects of the ambiguous term, coined in by Young.
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It is the differentiation preference of access of social goods in the society brought about by power, religion, kinship, prestige, race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, and class. Social inequality usually implies to the lack of equality of outcome, but may alternatively be conceptualized in terms of the lack of equality of access to opportunity. Although the disciplines of economics and sociology generally use different theoretical approaches to examine and explain economic inequality, both fields are actively involved in researching this inequality. However, social and natural resources other than purely economic resources are also unevenly distributed in most societies and may contribute to social status.
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Inequality is on the rise: gains have been concentrated with a small elite, while most have seen their fortunes stagnate or fall. Despite what scholars and journalists consider a worrying trend, there is no evidence of growing popular concern about inequality. In fact, research suggests that citizens in unequal societies are less concerned than those in more egalitarian societies. How to make sense of this paradox? Most users should sign in with their email address.
Meritocracy and economic inequality
Many of our ebooks are available for purchase from these online vendors:. Many of our ebooks are available through library electronic resources including these platforms:. It also offers a novel agenda of equal access to valuable associations. Hauser, Glenn Loury, Orley Ashenfelter, and others sift and analyze the latest arguments and quantitative findings on equality in order to explain how merit is and should be defined, how economic rewards are distributed, and how patterns of economic success persist across generations. The optimistic message of this beautifully edited book is that important violations of equality of opportunity do exist but can be attenuated by policies that will serve the general economy. Policy makers will read with interest concrete suggestions for crafting economically beneficial anti-discrimination measures, enhancing educational and associational opportunity, and centering economic reforms in community-based institutions.
Вирус. - Никакого вируса. Выслушай меня внимательно, - попросил Стратмор.
Проклятые американцы. Никакого представления о пунктуальности. Он позвонил бы Северной Дакоте сам, но у него не было номера его телефона.
Беккер шел, низко опустив голову. Халохот прокручивал в голове дальнейшие события. Все было очень просто: подойдя к жертве вплотную, нужно низко держать револьвер, чтобы никто не заметил, сделать два выстрела в спину, Беккер начнет падать, Халохот подхватит его и оттащит к скамье, как друга, которому вдруг стало плохо. Затем он быстро побежит в заднюю часть собора, словно бы за помощью, и в возникшей неразберихе исчезнет прежде, чем люди поймут, что произошло.