File Name: municipal solid waste composting physical and biological processing .zip
A lack of understanding about the effect of microorganism inoculation on compost production and relatively expensive downstream processing are the main obstacles towards an economic compost production. Our work tries to fill this gap. For this, influence of inoculation on the composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste OFMSW to produce compost with higher agronomic value was evaluated.
- Solid Waste Glossary
- Biological response of using municipal solid waste compost in agriculture as fertilizer supplement
- Municipal solid waste compost amendment in agricultural soil: changes in soil microbial biomass
Municipal solid waste MSW , commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain , is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. In the European Union, the semantic definition is 'mixed municipal waste,' given waste code 20 03 01 in the European Waste Catalog. Although the waste may originate from a number of sources that has nothing to do with a municipality, the traditional role of municipalities in collecting and managing these kinds of waste have produced the particular etymology 'municipal.
One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system.
Solid Waste Glossary
Waste management and declining soil fertility are the two main issues experienced by all developing nations, like India. Nowadays, agricultural utilization of Municipal Solid Waste MSW is one of the most promising and cost effective options for managing solid waste. It is helpful in solving two current burning issues viz. However, there is always a potential threat because MSW may contain pathogens and toxic pollutants. Therefore, much emphasis has been paid to composting of MSW in recent years.
Apart from that it also assists in improving biological response of cultivated land. Keeping the present situation in mind, this review critially discusses the current scenario, agricultural utilization of MSW compost, role of soil microbes and soil microbial response on municipal solid waste compost application. The growing urbanization and industrialization has led to countless problems in developed as well as in developing countries Singh et al.
There are many pressing issues emerged due to increasing population that eventually poses threat to the agricultural, ecosystems and environmental sustainability either directly or indirectly Fig. Amidst, the generation and management of Municipal solid waste MSW is important as this waste is disposed of unscientifically in low lying area without taking necessary precautions, thus posing risk to the human health and nearby environment Singh et al.
Therefore, there is an urgent need to manage the MSW in such a way that while managing its quantity and quality, it also helps to sustain the environment Araujo et al. Apart from this, the environmental and health standards along with social acceptability should be achieved. However, selection of the most appropriate route for MSW management MSWM is always being a matter of concern due to many environmental, technical, financial, social and legislative constraints which are faced by almost all industrially growing nations Adani et al.
Usually, waste generated from domestic, commercial, institutional and industrial sectors; and municipal services are included in MSW Srivastava et al. MSW can be treated as renewable resource for a variety of valuable products. The organic fraction of MSW provides an excellent opportunity for production of different value added by-products through the biorefinery concept maximum utilization of waste resource , further fueling the circular bioeconomy maximizing resource efficiency with least waste generation through which socio-economic and environmental stability is achieved.
Recently, Sadhukhan et al. The byproducts derived from this levulinic platform could further be used for the production of biogas and fertilizer. Similarly, carboxylates can be generated from organic fraction of waste through anaerobic unidentified mixed cultures, that can be efficiently converted into useful bioproducts like acetate, propionate, lactate and n -butyrate which are the product of primary fermentation process Agler et al.
However, these methods require high operational costs, therefore less suitable for developing countries. Thus, play a pivotal role in circular economy. It is an important tool for recycling of MSW, which would be otherwise landfilled leads to groundwater contamination, air pollution and many other health problems Kathiravale and Yunus Fig.
Agricultural utilization of MSW not only decreases the escalating pressure on land for landfilling, but it also improves soil fertility and acts as a soil conditioner Singh and Agrawal , Crecchio et al. The long term application of MSW in agricultural field may lead to heavy metal accumulation Lopes-Mosquera et al.
Therefore, composting of MSW is more interesting option for recycling of waste. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in composting of MSW, as it decreases the stabilization time of household waste and sewage sludge Hargreaves et al. The quality of compost from MSW depends on numerous factors such as feedstock source and ratio used, toxic compounds, the composting design, maturation length, and procedure that have been adopted during the process of composting Hargreaves et al.
During composting, the quality of carbon C in waste stuff drives the decomposition rate. If it is present in readily degradable form like carbohydrate, then will accelerate the process whereas, high proportion of lignin and cellulose will slower down the process of organic matter decomposition Araujo et al.
Ruggieri et al. Similarly, cost benefit analysis done by Couth and Trois for MSWM in Africa illustrates that aerated open windrow composting method was better option than controlled landfilling. In spite of having many advantages over other conventional waste management options, composting of MSW is not as much as popularize or in the practice as it deserves.
This is due to lack of awareness and inactive policies that need to be changed. For example, awareness campaigns and incentives for its installation should be provided to spread this technique at decentralized level. Apart from that local authority can generate revenue from better tax collection, polluters pay scheme, selling of MSW compost as being performed by Kolkata Municipal Corporation, India Chattopadhyay et al.
Therefore, composting of MSW has immense potential that adds value to the waste and diverts its route from landfills to agriculture fields as fertilizer supplement. Thus, helps in waste recycling and maintaining soil fertility. The present mini-review was aimed to discuss different aspects of agricultural utilization of MSW compost and biosolids including its potential benefits and threats; and soil microbial response.
Though, IFs add nutrients to the soil immediately after application but their long term use may change soil pH and disturb the soil microbial biota. Usually, IF tends to leach or filter away from the plants, therefore requires additional supply that pollutes ground water and also emits greenhouse gases GHGs. On contrary to this, application of MSW compost augment plants yield and ameliorates soil nutrient profile, microbial activity, soil texture and buffering capacity Hargreaves et al.
MSW compost is rich in organic matter content, nitrogen N and humic substances mainly humic acid and fulvic acid Garcia-Gil et al. Soil organic matter plays a significant role in maintaining soil quality Pedra et al. Besides this, it has high water holding capacity WHC and low bulk density Soumare et al. Thus helps in maintaining soil fertility and its productivity. Therefore, the organic fertilizer like MSW compost could be considered as a promising and sustainable alternative to inorganic fertilizer in agriculture and horticulture.
However, the presence of heavy metals i. Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb etc. Moreover, in some cases these heavy metal and excess nutrients percolate through the soil and finally pollutes underlying ground water Hargreaves et al. Garcia-Gil et al. Although, humic substances in compost act as chelating agent, thus reduces metal solubility but it also depends on pH, salt content and cation exchange capacity CEC of the soil Walker et al.
In addition, MSW compost sometimes has high salt concentration that can pose negative effect on soil texture and plants grown Hargreaves et al. Others potential risks of using MSWC is presence of pathogens, and some organic compounds. Although composting is recognized as a suitable treatment used for organic wastes and could inactivate several pathogens Deportes et al.
However, some previous studies reported that some pathogens, such as Listeria spp. MSWC may have some organic pollutants due to the presence of household hazardous and industrial wastes Reinhart Komilis et al. Likewise, Cincinelli et al. Apart from that presence of various pharmaceuticals and personal care products PPCPs like diphenhydramine, triclosan, carbamazepine, sulfamethazine, florfenicol, levamisole, trimethoprim etc.
Boxall et al. Different legislations have been made for safer land application of compost, organic waste and biosolids to prevent harmful effect on vegetation, soil and human health. Though, it differs among countries mainly in context to organic waste quality and quantities of pollutants that can be subjected to the soil.
Therefore, quality of MSWC must be examined prior to its application. Food security is a major concern in present scenario due to continuous increase in population growth. Thus, puts pressure on agricultural productivity. Nowadays, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides are used in frequent manner in agricultural lands.
Similarly, excessive withdrawal of water and clearing of forests have taken place that poses several threats to the environment Fig. Land degradation resulting from unsuitable land management is a major environmental and agricultural challenge, which is attributed to low nutrient availability and loss of organic matter leading to decreased productivity Tejada et al.
In order to revert the declining trend of agricultural productivity and to restore the degraded soils, fertilizer application is requisite Goyal et al. However, extensive use of inorganic fertilizer without any organic supplements poses risk to soil health i. Therefore, application of organic fertilizer such as compost, vermicompost and manure are now becoming more popular that support sustainability to the system.
Application of MSW compost in agricultural land usually poses positive effect on the productivity of a wide variety of cropland vegetables Warman et al. Recently, Haghighi et al. Pascual et al. Similarly, Papafilippaki et al. The chemical properties of both soil were i Sandy soil: TOC 4. The results showed significant increase in Cu, Zn and Mn uptake in the roots and leaves of the plants grown in the sandy soil whereas, Fe, Ni, Cd and Pb were not much effected by the MSWC amendments in both soil.
Pb was found only in the roots of the plants, similarly, Cr was found in significant amount in the roots but was insignificant in leaves. Likewise, concentration of Cu, Zn and Pb increased in the leaves of spiny chicory particularly at higher dose.
Cherif et al. C1 and C2 showed significant increase on wheat grain yield Furthermore, number of fecal coliform and heavy metal content were increased significantly in the amendments and bacterial population also decreased in C1 and C2 as compare to the control.
Here, the incorporation of MSW compost had increased the soil quality in both amended soil with respect to unamended soil. Shoot Cu concentration was highest in MSW3 plots.
Mg and Mn content was highest in plant tissues grown in IF amended plots. The results showed that fresh weight yield was increased numerically, but not significantly for peppers, carrots, onions and tomatoes, and significantly for green Leaf tissue nutrient analysis showed higher P and K in IF amended plant out of the 16 tested elements, while P content is significantly higher in the edible part of the vegetable crops.
Similarly, Hargreaves et al. No statistical difference in sugar content was noticed during experimental period and brix value ranged from 7. K which is predominant nutrient in strawberry was present in approximately five times higher than Mg, Ca, P and S. Therefore, agricultural utilization of MSW is advisable for nutrient deficient land Goyal et al. Apart from this, it plays a pivotal role in recycling of waste, generated from human settlement Campbell et al.
MSWC also helps in restoration of ecologic and economic functions of degraded land Shiralipour et al. It could be used for the restoration of wildfire burnt soil Guerrero et al. Potential microbial respiration and net N mineralization were significantly higher in organic amendments BCs and MCs than in the control and IF amendments; when calculated on C or N basis, MCs showed the highest values. IF amended plots showed higher plant cover than organic amendments but failed to contribute in soil restoration compared to organic amendments.
Cuevas et al. Available Cu and Zn were also significant in amended plots in comparison to control.
Biological response of using municipal solid waste compost in agriculture as fertilizer supplement
Tom L. The recent upsurge of interest in composting the organic fractions of municipal solid waste MSW builds on largely successful efforts with composting yard trimmings, agricultural wastes, and sewage sludges. While experience with these other materials is helpful in considering an MSW composting program, there are a number of challenges unique to MSW which need to be addressed. MSW contains materials which vary widely in size, moisture, and nutrient content, and the organic fractions can be mixed with varying degrees of non-compostable wastes and possibly hazardous constituents. Manufacturing a marketable compost product from this material requires a range of physical processing technologies in addition to the biological process management common to other types of composting.
Municipal solid waste compost amendment in agricultural soil: changes in soil microbial biomass
Agricultural application of Municipal Solid Waste MSW , as nutrient source for plants and as soil conditioner, is the most cost-effective option of MSW management because of its advantages over traditional means such as landfilling or incineration. However, agricultural application of MSW can lead to a potential environmental threat due to the presence of pathogens and toxic pollutants. Composting is an attractive alternative of MSW recycling.
Degradation of organic wastes in the presence of oxygen by microorganisms and bacteria, releasing carbon dioxide gas and heat and producing solid material compost that can be used as a soil amendment. An example of Aerobic Decomposition is the waste degradation that occurs in a compost pile. See Composting. Contrast Anaerobic Digestion. Solid Waste comprised of crop residues and animal manures resulting from agricultural operations.
Integrated Waste Management - Volume I. Biological degradation and transformation of organic substances under aerobic or anaerobic conditions are key processes within the natural metabolism of an equilibrated circulation system in order to handle the accumulating biomass.
Achieving high efficiency of biological waste treatment in mechanical—biological treatment MBT plants requires reliable methods for measuring the degree of biodegradation of organic substances. For this purpose, several physical, chemical, and biological indices are used. This paper presents respirometric activity AT4 , biogas potential GB21 , total and dissolved organic carbon TOC and DOC, respectively , and loss on ignition LOI values, as well as the correlations between the indices selected for stabilized waste produced in 18 MBT plants in Poland, which use various technologies for biological processing of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.
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