File Name: modern farming system and its effects on land .zip
More than half the planet's suitable land has been cultivated for crops, like these terraced rice fields in Bali, Indonesia.
Nancy M. Trautmann and Keith S. Wagenet Dept.
Environmental impact of agriculture
Traditional agriculture is an extractable process where all resources — human, water, and land — are taken and applied to immediate use. Modern agriculture uses planned technology and emphasizes management practices of conservation and renewability of resources. Modernization forces the growth of an infrastructure concomitant with rural development, urbanization, and industry. Overall economic development depends on the effective use of population and conservation of water and land as vital resources of the environment. President John F. Unable to display preview.
Human expansion throughout the world caused that agriculture is a dominant form of land management globally. Human influence on the land is accelerating because of rapid population growth and increasing food requirements. To stress the interactions between society and the environment, the driving forces D , pressures P , states S , impacts I , and response R DPSIR framework approach was used for analyzing and assessing the influence of agriculture on land use, environment, and ecosystem services. The DPSIR model was used to identify a series of core indicators and to establish the nature of interactions between different driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, and responses. We assessed selected indicators at global, national, and local levels. The driving forces exert pressure on the environment assessed by indicators describing development in fertilizer and pesticides consumption, by number of livestock, and by intensification joined growing release of ammonia and greenhouse gas GHG emissions from agriculture, and water abstraction.
Intensive agriculture , also known as intensive farming as opposed to extensive farming and industrial agriculture , is a type of agriculture , both of crop plants and of animals , with higher levels of input and output per unit of agricultural land area. It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour , and higher crop yields per unit land area. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways. Forms that rely heavily on industrial methods are often called industrial agriculture, which is characterised by innovations designed to increase yield. Techniques include planting multiple crops per year, reducing the frequency of fallow years, and improving cultivars.
Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least , years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11, years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10, years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Modern agronomy , plant breeding , agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers , and technological developments have sharply increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage.
Climate change negatively affects all four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilisation and stability. Food availability may be reduced by negative climate change impacts on productivity of crops, livestock and fish, due, for instance, to increases in temperature and changes in rainfall patterns. Productivity is also negatively affected by increased pests and diseases, as well as changing distributions of pollinators under climate change. Food access and its stability may be affected through disruption of markets, prices, infrastructure, transport, manufacture, and retail, as well as direct and indirect changes in income and food purchasing power of low-income consumers. Food utilisation may be directly affected by climate change due to increases in mycotoxins in food and feed with rising temperatures and increased frequencies of extreme events, and indirectly through effects on health. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations can increase yields at lower temperature increases, but tend to decrease protein content in many crops, reducing their nutritional values. Extreme events, for example, flooding, will affect the stability of food supply directly through disruption of transport and markets.
Sustainable Agriculture vs. Industrial Agriculture
Agriculture is an important source of livelihood because it is the process of producing food, feed, fiber, and many other desired products by the cultivation of plants and the raising of domesticated animals livestock. It is an art of managing the growth of plants and animals for human use. Let's study how the development in the agriculture techniques have impacted the environment and ecosystem. The agribusiness, intensive farming, organic farming, and sustainable agriculture are other names of modern agriculture.
The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them, and how those effects can be traced back to those practices. The environmental impact of agriculture varies widely based on practices employed by farmers and by the scale of practice. Farming communities that try to reduce environmental impacts through modifying their practices will adopt sustainable agriculture practices.
Дьявол ворвался в святилище в поисках выхода из Божьего дома, так пусть он уйдет, и как можно скорее. Тем более что проник он сюда в самый неподходящий момент.
Да мы только вошли. Но, увидев прислужника в конце ряда и два людских потока, движущихся по центральному проходу к алтарю, Беккер понял, что происходит. Причастие. Он застонал.
Мидж покачала головой. - В Космополитене пишут, что две трети просьб потереть спинку кончаются сексом. Бринкерхофф возмутился. - У нас ничего такого не случалось.
Бринкерхофф растерянно заморгал. - Да, сэр, - сказала Мидж. - Потому что Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй? - Фонтейн опустил глаза на компьютерную распечатку.