Introduction To Data And Information Pdf

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It is the raw information from which statistics are created.

Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which should be suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or electronic machine. Information is organized or classified data, which has some meaningful values for the receiver. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based. Data processing is the re-structuring or re-ordering of data by people or machine to increase their usefulness and add values for a particular purpose.

Data Module #1: What is Research Data?

Knowledge, Information, and Data are key words and also fundamental concepts in knowledge management, intellectual capital, and organizational learning. This paper includes the reasons for vagueness and confusion commonly associated with those key terms, proposed definitions of the key terms, and two models of their transformations and interactions.

Keywords: Knowledge management, intellectual capital, organizational learning, knowledge, data, information. Although many definitions are relevant, they are far from being complete. It is not the intention of this paper to criticize those whom have paved the way to better understanding of the topic.

Rather, the goal is to provide a different or new perspective in the context of business and knowledge management. Below is a table of various definitions of Data, Information, and Knowledge from different authors. Most if not all of the definitions shared a common anomaly; they are defined with each other, i.

If we are just describing the inter-relationships, that is all very well. However, with regard to definitions, this is a logical fallacy i. It is in Philosophy — Critical Thinking and Reasoning. Data is comprised of the basic, unrefined, and generally unfiltered information.

Information… is much more refined data… that has evolved to the point of being useful for some form of analysis. Knowledge resides in the user…happens only when human experience and insight is applied to data and information. Davenport and Prusak have come up with this definition of knowledge: it is a mixture of organized experiences, values, information and insights offering a framework to evaluate new experiences and information. Information: Processed data… formalized, capture and explicated; can easily be packaged into reusable form.

Knowledge: Actionable information… often emerges in minds of people through their experiences. Information is data put in context; it is related to other pieces of data. Information is about meaning, and it forms the basis for knowledge. Knowledge… encompasses the belief s of groups or individuals, and it is intimately tied to action. Knowledge… is defined as the meaningful links people make in their minds between information and its application in action in a specific setting.

Dixon, , Harvard Business School Press. Knowledge is a body of information, technique, and experience that coalesces around a particular subject. Data are elements of analysis. Information is data with context. Knowledge is information with meaning. Amidon , , Butterworth-Heinemann. Data must be organized to become information. Information must be put into context to become knowledge.

Garvin, , Avery Publishing Group. Information is a flow of messages. Knowledge is created by the very flow of information, anchored in the beliefs and commitment of its holder. Data is a set of discrete, objective facts about events… as structured records of transactions. Information… as message… in the various form of communication… to have an impact on judgment and behavior. Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insights that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information….

By Thomas H. Davenport and Laurence Prusak , Harvard Business School Press. Data: 1. Information: 1. Facts, Data; 4. Knowledge: 1. Cognizance; 2. This subject is not an easy one; it involves extensive conceptual thinking dealing with many abstract concepts and semantics. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of this topic is the quintessential foundation of information and knowledge management. Good definitions include several essential characteristics: 1 boundaries i. Thereafter, we can look into the inter-relationships between the defined subjects.

The main purpose of data is to record activities or situations, to attempt to capture the true picture or real event. Therefore, all data are historical, unless used for illustration purposes, such as forecasting. Knowledge is the 1 cognition or recognition know-what , 2 capacity to act know-how , and 3 understanding know-why that resides or is contained within the mind or in the brain.

The purpose of knowledge is to better our lives. In the context of business, the purpose of knowledge is to create or increase value for the enterprise and all its stakeholders.

In short, the ultimate purpose of knowledge is for value creation. Given the definitions for data, information, and knowledge, the relationships between data and information, information and knowledge, why they are most often regarded as interchangeable and when they are not, the processes and their relevance to our intended application can be explored.

The key to understanding the intricate relationship between data, information, and knowledge lies at the source of data and information. The source of both is twofold: 1 activities, and 2 situations. Both activities and situations generate information i. Examples of activities where information is generated and data can be collected include business activities like production, sales transactions, or advertising campaigns. Situations pertain to changes in the environment that may or may not be related to human activities, such as changes in the climate.

Changes in the climate would affect such human activities as agriculture, or other economic activities such as cargo shipping. A situation is a context that affects decisions.

For example, the deterioration of a factory building may impact production. In short, activities and situations generate information that feed into the decision-making process. The following diagram illustrates the relationships between data and information. Once they are captured and stored, data can be processed back into information through compilation and analysis.

The picture of past activities and situations can thus be reconstructed. Further compilation of names of customers and their contact numbers may lead to information of how many customers one can reach and possible times needed to complete the task, i.

Both the same data in different context would yield different meaning, implications or information that may necessitate a different decision or consequence. The key to understanding the relationship between information and knowledge is to know where the information resides. Recall that information is at its essence a message that is generated from activities and situations.

However, information resides in storage media database, print, video tapes, etc. This also explains why many perceive data and information, as well as information and knowledge as interchangeable. However, they are not interchangeable in terms of their accepted distinct definitions. So, what is a book: knowledge, information or data? It is all the above in various context. These distinctions can help us crystallize our understanding in terms of managing data, information, and knowledge within the business model or organization.

The importance or usefulness of definitions cannot be overstated when it comes to execution of management activities and business programs that involve millions upon millions of dollars. Data management is the capture, storage, structure, compilation, retrieval, and analysis of records.

Thereafter, action can be taken and then reviewed. Knowledge management, on the other hand, is, in essence, the management of human capital tacit knowledge that resides in the human mind relationship capital such as customer, supplier, strategic alliance, social capital tacit and explicit , and structural capital explicit knowledge a. Knowledge management is not an isolated concept. Topics such as individual and organizational learning, creativity and innovation, leadership and teamwork, community networking, technology, corporate culture, and strategy contribute to the process of creating, capturing, and applying knowledge for value creation.

Knowledge management is neither a fleeting concept nor a fad. It is just elusive because of its multi-disciplinary characteristics. In time, as more research and understanding is applied it will be better understood.

Final words on the definition of data, information, and knowledge may not and should not come from this document. Nevertheless, this paper has hopefully clarified certain issues for future applications.

Amidon , D. Davenport , T. Dixon , N. Garvin, A. Horibe , F. Kelley, J. Nonaka , I. Probst , G. Rehauser , J. Stewart, T. Sydanmaanlakka , P. Tiwana , A.

An introduction to data and information

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Ever wondered how a computer processes data into information? This free course, An introduction to data and information, will help you to understand the distinction between the two and examines how a computer-based society impacts on daily life. You will learn what computers can do with data to produce information and how computers can be used to work with data and search for it, control machines, and support commercial operations. You can start this course right now without signing-up. Click on any of the course content sections below to start at any point in this course.


Data consists of raw facts and figures. When that data is processed into sets according to context, it provides information. Data refers to raw input that when.


An introduction to data and information

There is a subtle difference between data and information. Data are the facts or details from which information is derived. Individual pieces of data are rarely useful alone. For data to become information, data needs to be put into context.

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing , transforming , and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, and is used in different business, science, and social science domains. In today's business world, data analysis plays a role in making decisions more scientific and helping businesses operate more effectively. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on statistical modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing mainly on business information.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: What is the meaning of " data " , " information " , and " knowledge "? Zins Published The field of Information Science is constantly changing.

Data are characteristics or information , usually numeric, that are collected through observation.

An introduction to data and information

Knowledge, Information, and Data are key words and also fundamental concepts in knowledge management, intellectual capital, and organizational learning. This paper includes the reasons for vagueness and confusion commonly associated with those key terms, proposed definitions of the key terms, and two models of their transformations and interactions. Keywords: Knowledge management, intellectual capital, organizational learning, knowledge, data, information. Although many definitions are relevant, they are far from being complete.

Before we go to introduction to Big Data, you first need to know What is Data? The quantities, characters, or symbols on which operations are performed by a computer, which may be stored and transmitted in the form of electrical signals and recorded on magnetic, optical, or mechanical recording media. Big Data is a collection of data that is huge in volume, yet growing exponentially with time. Big data is also a data but with huge size. In this tutorial, you will learn, What is Data?

Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty ; it is that which answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. The concept of information has different meanings in different contexts. Information is associated with data. The difference is that information resolves uncertainty. Data can represent redundant symbols, but approaches information through optimal data compression. Information can be transmitted in time, via data storage , and space, via communication and telecommunication. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message.


Chapter 3: Data, Information and Meaning. Introduction. This is the second chapter which establishes the theoretical and philosophical basis for the.


What is BIG DATA? Introduction, Types, Characteristics, Example

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Encompassing a broad range of forms and sources of data, this textbook introduces data systems through a progressive presentation. Bressoud worked outside of academia both before and after completing his MS and PhD degrees from Cornell University in , including seven years at MIT Lincoln Laboratory working in real-time radar systems.

Before we go to introduction to Big Data, you first need to know What is Data? The quantities, characters, or symbols on which operations are performed by a computer, which may be stored and transmitted in the form of electrical signals and recorded on magnetic, optical, or mechanical recording media. Big Data is a collection of data that is huge in volume, yet growing exponentially with time.

What is BIG DATA? Introduction, Types, Characteristics, Example

Before we go to introduction to Big Data, you first need to know What is Data? The quantities, characters, or symbols on which operations are performed by a computer, which may be stored and transmitted in the form of electrical signals and recorded on magnetic, optical, or mechanical recording media. Big Data is a collection of data that is huge in volume, yet growing exponentially with time.

2 Response
  1. ZoГ© L.

    Objectives: to learn. • The difference between data and information. • What a database is, the various types of databases, and why they are valuable assets for​.

  2. Isabel C.

    Material science for dummies pdf excellence in business communication 9th edition pdf download

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