Theories Of Law And Schools Of Jurisprudence Pdf

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Thus the term jurisprudence signifies knowledge of law and its application. Jurisprudence means the interpretation of the general principles based on which actual rules of law are recognised.

There are different schools or philosophies concerning what law is all about. Philosophy of law is also called jurisprudence , and the two main schools are legal positivism and natural law. Although there are others, these two are the most influential in how people think about the law. Positivism is a philosophical movement that claims that science provides the only knowledge precise enough to be worthwhile.


Thus the term jurisprudence signifies knowledge of law and its application. Jurisprudence means the interpretation of the general principles based on which actual rules of law are recognised.

Jurisprudence is concerned with the rules of external conduct which people are forced to obey. Some of the notable definitions of jurisprudence as expounded by jurists are as follow:.

As per H. Law is the subject matter of jurisprudence since the latter deals with the study of law. Austin thought it is necessary to define law in order to establish the province of jurisprudence. The history of the concept of law discloses that jurisprudence has dissimilar meanings at different periods. Therefore it is difficult to attempt a singular definition of the term. Wherever the concept of law is examined, as it occurs, for example, in mathematics, logic, and the physical sciences, one surrounded by puzzles and confusion.

Laws are acknowledged to be very queer things; baffling questions about them arise on every side. Nowhere, however, is the thicket of intellectual difficulties more tangled than it is about the concept of law in jurisprudence. Some of the main questions that require answers are: 1 what is a law? Many of the troubles and falsehoods which a philosopher of law is appropriate to encounter, initiated by a tendency to confuse two or more of these questions.

However, even when he avoids that kind of error, the tasks of determining the precise meaning of these questions and their answers remain formidable ones. Hart, Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of Oxford, discusses these and related problems in his new book [2]. Hart, being a lawyer, is also a fine philosopher: in short, just the man for the job.

Moreover, he has done it exceedingly well. Law can be said to be a principle and regulation established in a particular community by an authority and applicable to its people, whether in the form of legislation or custom and policies recognised and enforced by State authority.

In jurisprudence, law is the subject matter. As per Blackstone, a law in its most general and comprehensive sense signifies a rule of action and is applied indiscriminately to all kind of actions irrespective of gender, caste, language, race, birth, colour, etc.

According to Salmond, the body of principles recognised and applied by the state in the administration of justice. There are different types of law such as general law, private international law, conventional law, special law, municipal law, customary law, international law, private law, public law, constitutional law, administrative law, substantive law and procedural law. The following are said to be the identified sources of law: legislation, custom, precedent, juristic opinion, international convention.

The schools of jurisprudence has defined law in various aspects. Many jurists have attempted to define the concept of law in clear aspects. The concept of law shall be mentioned in detail under the following schools of jurisprudence. They are as follows:. There is no consensus about the definition and exact meaning of Natural Law. The term Natural Law in jurisprudence implies those standards and standards which should have started from some preeminent source other than any political or common specialist.

It symbolizes Physical Law of Nature-dependent on moral standards which has all-inclusive relevance at all places and terms. It has regularly been utilized either to safeguard a change or to keep up business as usual as indicated by necessities and prerequisite of the time.

For instance, Locke utilized Natural Law as an instrument of progress, however Hobbes utilized it to keep up the present state of affairs in the public arena. Natural Law is eternal and unchangeable, as having existed from the commencement of the world. Man does not make natural Law; he only discovers it. Any external agency cannot not enforce natural law.

Natural Law is a law which does not have legislation backing. Basically it is an outcome of preaching of the philosophers, prophets, saints etc. Divine Law implies the order of God forced upon men. It is additionally the widespread or Custom-based Law as being of universal validity, the equivalent in all spots and authoritative on all people groups, and not one thing at Athens. Heraclitus The idea of Natural Law was created by Greek thinkers around fourth century.

Heraclitus was the primary Greek logician who pointed at the three principle highlights of Law of Nature, to be specific, I destiny, ii order and iii reason. He expressed that nature is definitely not a scattered heap of things, however there is a clear connection between the things and a definite order and rhythm of occasions. Socrates Socrates has stated that a man can distinguish between good and bad and can appreciate the moral values.

He did not deny the ability of the Positive Law. Socrates pleaded for the necessity of Natural Law for the safety and stability of the nation, which was one of the major need of the age. His apprentice Plato supported the same theory. However, it is in Aristotle that we find a proper and logical elaboration of the theory. Aristotle According to Aristotle, man is a part of nature in two means.

Firstly, he is a part of the creatures of God, secondly, he possesses awareness and reason by which he can form his will. By this reason, man can determine the eternal norm of justice. The Law should be reformed or amended rather than being broken. Natural Law and Roman law The Romans did not confine their study simply to theoretical thoughts but carried it to give an applied shape by transforming their rigid legal system into a living law. Jus Gentium is encompassed of the universal legal doctrines which comply with Natural Law.

Natural Law: Indian Scenario Hindu legal system is perhaps the most ancient legal system of the world. The Hindus established a logical and comprehensive law at early times.

According to the Hindu understanding, Law owes its existence to God. The king is to execute that law, and he is bound by it, and the king is disobeyed if it goes against this law.

The puranas are full of occasions where the kings were dethroned and beheaded when they went in contradiction of the recognised law. Medieval Period The opinions of Thomas Aquinas are regarded as a representative of the fresh theory. It is that component that in natural reason shows itself. He considered the power of Church to interpret Divine Law. Hugo Grotius — In the concept of natural law advocated by Grotius, there is inconsistency.

However, it was evident that Grotius feared the stability of political order and maintenance of international peace which was the need of that particular point of time.

According to him, the two basic principles needed for a just legislation were: 1 respect principles, and 2 community engagement principle. Legal positivism is seen in legal jurisprudence around the globe as one of the most important schools of thought.

This theory was created around the 18th and 19th centuries by jurists like John Austin and Jeremy Bentham. Subsequently, influential jurists such as Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart and Joseph Raz advanced this school of thought. The above-mentioned jurists have substantial differences of opinion, but the prevalent concept that all the above-mentioned jurists have is to analyse law as it is. Therefore, they have the common objective of helping people understand the law of the land as it is and not as it ought to be.

Therefore, the legal positivist school only aims to identify the law as it is laid down by a superior body and not how it should have been. A Hart. Jeremy Bentham is said to be the father of the Analytical school of jurisprudence. Bentham rejected the natural law and expounded the principle of utility with scientific accuracy. He partitioned jurisprudence into censorial and expository. The former handles the law as it is, while the latter handles the law as it ought to be.

Analysis of censorial jurisprudence by Bentham is indicative of the reality that the effect of natural law had not disappeared entirely. That is why he talked of utility as the governing rule. Bentham believes that law is a product of state and sovereign.

A law may be defined as an association of sin declarative of a violation conceived or adopted by the sovereign in a state concerning the conduct to be observed in a certain case by a certain person or class of persons who, in the case, in question are or supposed to be subject to his power. John Austin, the father of the Analytical School of Jurisprudence, limited the scope of jurisprudence and prescribed its boundaries. As per Austin, analysis is the principal technique of study in jurisprudence.

He built on the foundation of expository jurisprudence laid by Bentham and did not concern himself with extra-legal norms.

Austin differentiated the science of legislation and law from morals. Austin divided Jurisprudence into general jurisprudence and particular jurisprudence. It does not have the relevance to legal systems as in India and the USA.

Law are of two kinds: Law of God and Human Laws:. This is again divided into two parts: Law of God — Laws set by God for men. Human Laws — Laws which are set by men for men.

Human laws of two types can be split into two groups: 1. Positive law; these are the rules set by political superiors as such, or by individuals who do not act as political superiors but act in pursuit of the rules granted by political superiors. Only these statutes are the appropriate matter of jurisprudence.

Other Laws; legislation not established by political superiors set by individuals who do not act in the ability or personality of political superiors or by individuals pursuing legal rights.

The law correctly so-called the positive law relies on the sovereign political power. Therefore, every law is a command according to Austin. So correctly so-called laws are a command species. Commands are of two types: Las or rules and Occasional commands. A command is a law or guidelines where it usually requires individuals to act or forbear.


The study of the conception of legal rights and duties. The philosophical or ethical school concerns itself chiefly with the relation of law to certain ideals which law is meant to achieve. It is not concerned with its historical or intellectual content. The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, To investigate such legal concepts as property, contracts, persons, acts, and intention etc. On one hand, we need to respect the rights of those displaced from their homelands and to enhance Being conservative in its outlook it relies on past, however, its merit is that it shows that law must change with the changes in society. Fecundity — the probability that the action will be followed by sensations of the same kind.

There are basically five schools of jurisprudence. We will discuss these schools along with their leading jurists. The philosophical or ethical school concerns itself chiefly with the relation of law to certain ideals which law is meant to achieve. It seeks to investigate the purpose for which a particular law has been enacted. It is not concerned with its historical or intellectual content. The notable jurists of this school are Grotius , Immanuel Kant and Hegel

Different legal theories developed throughout societies. Though there are a number of theories, only four of them are dealt with here under. You may deal other theories in detail in your course on jurisprudence. Natural law theory is the earliest of all theories. In their studies of the relation between nature and society, these philosophers have arrived at the conclusion that there are two types of law that govern social relations. One of them is made by person to control the relations within a society and so it may vary from society to society and also from time to tome within a society.

These viewpoints are what are known as the theories of law or schools of jurisprudence. Among these, natural law, legal positivism, realist.

natural law school of jurisprudence notes pdf

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Reading: Schools of Legal Thought

 Вы читаете мои мысли, мисс Флетчер. Сьюзан Флетчер словно была рождена для тайных поисков в Интернете. Год назад высокопоставленный сотрудник аппарата Белого дома начал получать электронные письма с угрозами, отправляемые с некоего анонимного адреса. АНБ поручили разыскать отправителя. Хотя агентство имело возможность потребовать от переадресующей компании открыть ему имя этого клиента, оно решило прибегнуть к более изощренному методу - следящему устройству.

Types of Legal Theory

 Чтобы он получил второй ключ.

Мне нужен консьерж. На лице привратника появилась обиженная гримаса, словно Беккер чем-то его оскорбил. - Рог aqui, senor.

Беккер отчаянно давил на тормоз, но покрышки потеряли всякое сцепление с полом. Спереди на него быстро надвигалась стена. Такси все еще продолжало крутиться, и в ожидании столкновения он сжался в комок. Раздался оглушающий треск гофрированного металла. Но Беккер не ощутил боли.

Schools of Jurisprudence

Обменные операции явно не относились к числу сильных сторон Двухцветного: сто песет составляли всего восемьдесят семь центов. - Договорились, - сказал Беккер и поставил бутылку на стол. Панк наконец позволил себе улыбнуться.

Похоже, в них угадывался страх. Или это ненависть. Они буквально пожирали ее тело. Новая волна паники охватила Сьюзан.

Вода из горячей постепенно превратилась в теплую и, наконец, холодную. Она уже собиралась вылезать, как вдруг ожил радиотелефон. Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины. - Дэвид.


2 Response
  1. Ferragus P.

    As it deals with the study, theory, and understanding of the law, American jurisprudence refers to the act of scrutinizing, classifying, and explaining the law.

  2. Eglantine V.

    One barrier to greater dialogue and understanding within jurisprudence is the inability to appreciate the variety of forms and purposes among the different theories of or about the nature of law.

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