File Name: designation of carbon and low alloy steels in format.zip
In this article we will discuss analyzing carbon in three of the four main types of steel alloys; carbon steel, low alloy steel, stainless steel — but not in tool steel at this time. Carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Low alloy steel includes carbon and small additions of other alloying elements such as chromium, manganese, molybdenum, etc.
High-strength low-alloy steel HSLA is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they are not made to meet a specific chemical composition but rather specific mechanical properties. They have a carbon content between 0. Other alloying elements include up to 2. Precipitation strengthening plays a minor role, too.
BS ISO 14737:2015
High-strength low-alloy steel HSLA is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they are not made to meet a specific chemical composition but rather specific mechanical properties.
They have a carbon content between 0. Other alloying elements include up to 2. Precipitation strengthening plays a minor role, too. Copper, silicon, nickel, chromium, and phosphorus are added to increase corrosion resistance. Zirconium, calcium, and rare earth elements are added for sulfide-inclusion shape control which increases formability. These are needed because most HSLA steels have directionally sensitive properties. Formability and impact strength can vary significantly when tested longitudinally and transversely to the grain.
Bends that are parallel to the longitudinal grain are more likely to crack around the outer edge because it experiences tensile loads. This directional characteristic is substantially reduced in HSLA steels that have been treated for sulfide shape control. They are used in cars, trucks, cranes, bridges, roller coasters and other structures that are designed to handle large amounts of stress or need a good strength-to-weight ratio. HSLA steels are also more resistant to rust than most carbon steels because of their lack of pearlite — the fine layers of ferrite almost pure iron and cementite in pearlite.
Military armour plate is mostly made from alloy steels, although some civilian armour against small arms is now made from HSLA steels with extreme low temperature quenching. A common type of micro-alloyed steel is improved-formability HSLA.
In the U. These steels were developed for the automotive industry to reduce weight without losing strength. Examples of uses include door-intrusion beams, chassis members, reinforcing and mounting brackets, steering and suspension parts, bumpers, and wheels. Controlled rolling is a method of refining grains of steel by introducing large amount of nucleation sites for ferrite in austenite matrix by rolling with temperature control, therefore increasing the strength of steel.
There are three main stages during controlled rolling: . In this stage, austenite is being recrystallized and refined and can thereby refine the ferrite grains in the later stage. Austenite grains being elongated by rolling and deformation bands might present within the band as well. Elongated grain boundaries and deformation bands are all nucleation sites for ferrite. Ferrite nucleates and austenite being further work-hardened.
Control-rolled HSLA steels contain a combination of different strengthening mechanisms. The main strengthening effect come from grain refinement Grain boundary strengthening , where strength increase as the grain size decrease. The other mechanisms include solid solution strengthening and precipitate hardening from micro-alloyed elements. Control-rolled HSLA steels usually have higher strength and toughness, as well as lower ductile-brittle transition temperature  and ductile fracture properties.
Nb can both increase the strength and toughness by precipitate strengthening and grain refinement. Vanadium: V can significantly increase the strength and transition temperature by precipitate strengthening.
Titanium: Ti have a slight increase in strengthen via both grain refinement and precipitate strengthening. They are all good carbide and nitride former,  where the precipitates formed can prevent grain growth by pinning grain boundary. They are also all ferrite former, which increase the transition temperature of austenite-ferrite two phase region and reduce the non-recrystallization region.
Other alloying elements are mainly for solid solution strengthening including Silicon, Manganese, Chromium, Copper, and Nickel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Archived from the original on Euro Inox. June Archived from the original PDF on Thermomechanical Processing of High-strength Low -alloy Steels.
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Designation of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
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Steel , alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon content ranges up to 2 percent with a higher carbon content, the material is defined as cast iron. In addition, the tools required to build and manufacture such articles are also made of steel. For a list of steel production by country, see below World steel production. The main reasons for the popularity of steel are the relatively low cost of making, forming, and processing it, the abundance of its two raw materials iron ore and scrap , and its unparalleled range of mechanical properties. The major component of steel is iron, a metal that in its pure state is not much harder than copper. Omitting very extreme cases, iron in its solid state is, like all other metals, polycrystalline—that is, it consists of many crystals that join one another on their boundaries. A crystal is a well-ordered arrangement of atoms that can best be pictured as spheres touching one another.
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High-strength low-alloy steel
These are four digit numbers which represent chemical composition standards for steel specifications. Over time they used the same numbers to refer to the same alloy, but the AISI system used a letter prefix to denote the steelmaking process. The prefix "C" denoted open-hearth furnace, electric arc furnace or basic oxygen furnace, while "E" denotes electric arc furnace steel. The AISI stopped being involved because it never wrote any of the specifications.
The effect of alloying on the resistance of carbon steel for oilfield applications to CO 2 corrosion. David V. A systematic study has been conducted to investigate the influence of a wide range of alloying elements and different processing conditions on the resistance of low-carbon steels to CO 2 corrosion. Strong carbide-forming microalloying elements such as Ti, Nb and V, along with Cr additions, and different levels of Mn, Si, Cu, Mo and Ni, have been explored, along with treatments simulating different processing conditions, for example, controlled rolling, and quenching and tempering.
This article addresses classifications and designations for carbon steels and low-alloy steels, particularly high-strength low-alloy HSLA steels, based on chemical composition, manufacturing methods, finishing method, product form, deoxidation practice, microstructure, required strength level, heat treatment and quality descriptors. It describes the effects of alloying elements on the properties and characteristics of steels. The article provides extensive tabular data pertaining to domestic and international designations of steels. Sign In or Create an Account.
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