File Name: ethical and practical principles of community development .zip
The nature of community-based participatory research CBPR poses distinctive ethical challenges.
- Code of Ethics
- Health Management, Ethics and Research Module: 7. Principles of Healthcare Ethics
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Ethical leadership demonstrates a high regard for values. The principles of ethical leadership include honesty, justice, respect, community and integrity. Ethical leadership is critical to the success of any business.
Community development is a process where community members are supported by agencies to identify and take collective action on issues which are important to them. Community development empowers community members and creates stronger and more connected communities. Community development is a holistic approach grounded in principles of empowerment, human rights, inclusion, social justice, self-determination and collective action Kenny,
Code of Ethics
Photo: oatsy The ethics of community engagement needs to come to the forefront of our work. Let me start with a confession. When I started to develop an undergraduate elective on community engagement at Newcastle Uni in , I included ethics in the final module because I knew I should. Now, after students from 38 different degrees have done the subject, ethics is increasingly underpinning the course.
My aim is for students to come away with a passion for community engagement and the strengths of communities, or at least an awareness of the possibilities presented by community engagement. But I also want students to come away seeing community engagement as being based on a principled approach.
Ethical community engagement involves working to high ethical standards and so how we go about engagement is vitally important. While there are many similarities in the principles of community engagement identified by the Murray-Darling Basin Commission, I like the addition of courage to their list. As well as ensuring that how we do community engagement is ethical, it is also important to consider WHAT we do.
In our pursuit of profit and economic growth, too often the ethics of what we do has been ignored. Following are five questions I think we need to ask ourselves as community engagement practitioners about what we do. There are some motivations for community engagement which I think we would all agree are appropriate, for example:. There are also motivations for community engagement which I suspect we would agree are questionable.
Like many ethical issues, there are also grey areas, where different people will have different positions. Examples might include community engagement where the main or high priority is to maintain a social license for coal mining, or community engagement based around the new casino to be built in Sydney.
Closely related to the question of motivation, is a questions around whose interests are being served. It can help to think about a continuum with one end being where the main focus is the interests of the organisation and the other end being where the main focus is the interests of the community.
If community engagement is primarily about the interests of the organisation, then I think it is appropriate to question the ethics of its community engagement. Community engagement should serve the interests of the community. Of course this raises questions about whose voices we are hearing from the community. When we engage a community, we need to think about whose interests within the community are being served.
I would argue that we generally have an ethical responsibility to protect the interests of marginalised sections of the community and to consider whose voices are being missed in our conversations. In a caravan park I worked with as a community worker there was a Resident Liaison Committee whose members had no young children and most of them lived in manufactured homes they owned rather than renting a caravan park or cabin like some of the other permanent residents.
The Liaison Committee supported a decision by the park management to remove play equipment due to insurance concerns. There is no doubt that the Liaison Committee was acting in the interests of some of the park residents, but at the expense of more marginalised residents many of whom had children.
At one level, there was good community engagement, because residents were involved in the decision-making. At another level, people who had little voice already were further marginalised by the process Stuart, We have a responsibility to think broadly about whose interests are being served by community engagement.
Communities are not homogeneous — there can be competing interests within a community. As community engagement practitioners we need to think about how we will ensure that a diverse range of experiences and interests are included. We need to ensure that our processes do not further disadvantage marginalised sections of the community. We need to remember that we are not just talking engagement, but community engagement, which suggests a focus on the collective and not just the individual.
This suggests that there needs to be some benefit for the community. I like the following definition of community engagement. Notice the emphasis on community well-being. Through community engagement, people can have input into planning, decision making and activities that helps to improve their wellbeing. Clearly there will often be debates about the best way to enhance community wellbeing, but this should be part of the process.
I find it helpful to think about vertical and horizontal aspects of community engagement. Vertical community engagement is when a formal organisation often external to the community engages the community. Horizontal community engagement refers to the more informal connections between community members.
Horizontal community engagement is very important when we consider social capital. Good community engagement helps promote horizontal community engagement as well as vertical community engagement. For example if there are divisive issues in communities, one of our aims should be to build great connections and understanding between community members. The notion of divide and conquer, does not belong in community engagement.
Community engagement is a two-way process. Media campaigns, marketing and information giving might be important in community engagement, but they are NOT community engagement in their own right. Community engagement involves meaningful interactions. In my community engagement course, students need to critique an example of community engagement. I now discourage students from doing charity fundraising events such as Race for Research and Jeans for Genes day.
While these might be great events, and can form part of a broader community engagement strategy, they are limited as examples of community engagement. They do not really involve a two-way process and thus lack meaningful community engagement. Finally, we face many environmental challenges in the coming decades. We need to address climate change, our over use of many resources and our addiction to fossil fuels.
The time has come for this to be a major priority, particularly for people from over-developed countries like Australia. The time has come for us to question community engagement processes that undermine our urgent need to become more sustainable.
Ethical community engagement is not a matter of black and white. There are many grey areas but hopefully the above five questions can help us to think about the type of work we do. If you liked this post please follow my blog top right-hand corner of the blog , and you might like to look at:. Aslin, H.
Towards whole of community engagement: A practical toolkit. Canberra: Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Atlee, T. Core principles for public engagement. Department of Sustainability and Environment.
Effective Engagement: building relationships with community and other stakeholders. Book 1: An introduction to engagement. Stuart, G. Community leadership: A tale of two residential parks. Flowers Ed. Sydney: University of Technology of Sydney. Pingback: The Ethics of Working in a Community sarahjcress. Hi Pip Your PhD sounds interesting! Thinking again about the course I teach which, as you probably realise, is a standalone subject when students do a critique of an example of community engagement, they very rarely discuss the ethics of it.
I suspect some people do make decisions about what work they do because of ethical considerations, but it would be interesting to see to what extent. My guess would be that ethics would have a greater impact on how people do their work than what they do. I suspect ethics is one of those areas. Like Liked by 1 person.
Hi Graeme, a great article and one which I would like to use with your permission. I am currently a PhD candidate at Monash. I am really pleased to see ethics being addressed in undergraduate courses but having taught ethics business to undergrads myself I wonder just what ethics mean to them. Are they guided by moral values or consequentialism? As my work has a theoretical base, I am also aware that much do what we do is deeply entrenched in our political frameworks and this makes changing the outcomes difficult.
I would really like to know your thoughts on this. I would also like to use your article in work? Would you mind? Are you planning on publishing anywhere else. Citation details etc.
Like Like. Some mining companies invest significant amounts of money in community development in communities near their mines. One of the benefits of this investment is that the local communities are more likely to support the continued operation of the mine. That rings bells for me; and a lot of other academics as well I am pretty sure! This is a really good post. The technique of identifying some key questions and keeping them in mind as a part of preparing all parts of a course is a very good one; and thinking about it now it retrospect; it could work for all kinds of topic areas — not just community engagement.
I used to prepare materials for software engineering, and software quality assurance. The questions I could have used would have been a bit different, but your five questions could easily be a starting point for anyone in all kinds of subject areas wanting to have ethics well integrated in their subject.
The main reason was that there was a lot to fit into a one semester subject and I wanted to focus on the practice of community engagement. It was hard to fit everything in, and initially I thought there were other priorities. I knew ethical practice was important, but thought students needed to be motivated to engage communities and to have some skills for doing so.
Health Management, Ethics and Research Module: 7. Principles of Healthcare Ethics
Mikesell supervised the abstract reviews, collated results, and drafted the introduction and Tables 3 and 4 and their corresponding text. Bromley drafted the Discussion and Table 2 and its corresponding text. Khodyakov drafted Table 1 and its corresponding text and revised the introduction. Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research CBPR , however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature.
PDF | Defining the community as client or partner requires a different ethical in which they practice will facilitate the further development of moral munity practitioner beyond the traditional ethical principles to ethical.
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Photo: oatsy The ethics of community engagement needs to come to the forefront of our work. Let me start with a confession.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. T he context of housing health hazards involving children requires a fresh look at the ethical framework for research involving humans. The ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice may have particular meaning within the context of research that takes place in the home and community.
The Code of Ethics states the values and ethical principles on which the profession is based. The Association has a duty to ensure as far as possible that its members discharge their ethical obligations and are afforded the professional rights necessary for the safeguarding and promotion of the rights of people who use social work services. People who use social work services may be individuals children, young people or adults , families or other groups or communities. Social workers have a responsibility to promote and work to the Code of Ethics in carrying out their obligations to people who use social work services, to their employers, to one another, to colleagues in other disciplines and to society.
Ethics is about the values that should be respected by all healthcare workers while interacting with individuals, families and communities.
Code of Ethics
JR4Gl) В конце концов один из них объяснил Беккеру то, что тот уже и сам понял. Эта абракадабра представляла собой зашифрованный текст: за группами букв и цифр прятались слова. Задача дешифровщиков состояла в том, чтобы, изучив его, получить оригинальный, или так называемый открытый, текст. АНБ пригласило Беккера, потому что имелось подозрение, что оригинал был написан на мандаринском диалекте китайского языка, и ему предстояло переводить иероглифы по мере их дешифровки. В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов. Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами.
Может быть, и нет, - сказала Сьюзан. - Во множестве шифров применяются группы из четырех знаков. Возможно, это и есть ключ. - Вот именно, - простонал Джабба. - Он над вами издевается.
Отключение ТРАНСТЕКСТА было логичным шагом в случае возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, а ведь тот был уверен, что в машину проник вирус. К несчастью, это был самый надежный способ собрать в шифровалке всех сотрудников Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности. После таких экстренных действий на главном коммутаторе раздавался сигнал общей тревоги. Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не. Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку. Чатрукьяна во что бы то ни стало следовало остановить.
Коммандер в два счета выставит Хейла - все-таки сегодня суббота. Но она отдавала себе отчет в том, что, если Хейла отправят домой, он сразу же заподозрит неладное, начнет обзванивать коллег-криптографов, спрашивать, что они об этом думают, В конце концов Сьюзан решила, что будет лучше, если Хейл останется. Он и так скоро уйдет.
ГЛАВА 29 Все еще нервничая из-за столкновения с Хейлом, Сьюзан вглядывалась в стеклянную стену Третьего узла. В шифровалке не было ни души. Хейл замолк, уставившись в свой компьютер. Она мечтала, чтобы он поскорее ушел.
Хорошо бы помедленнее. Беккеру не хотелось так быстро уходить от алтаря, но когда две тысячи людей ждут причастия, а обслуживают их всего восемь священнослужителей, было бы неприличным медлить с этим священным глотком. Чаша была уже совсем близко, когда Халохот заметил человека в пиджаке и брюках разного цвета. - Estas ya muerto, - тихо прошептал он, двигаясь по центральному проходу. Ты уже мертвец.