File Name: list of genes and their functions .zip
Sometimes, certain types of cancer seem to run in some families. In some cases, this might be because family members share certain behaviors or exposures that increase cancer risk, such as such as smoking.
Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA that contain the code for a specific protein that functions in one or more types of cells in the body. Chromosomes are structures within cells that contain a person's genes. Some traits are caused by mutated genes that are inherited or that are the result of a new gene mutation. Proteins are probably the most important class of material in the body.
What are genes and why are they important?
Cancer is a genetic disease—that is, cancer is caused by certain changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide. Genes carry the instructions to make proteins , which do much of the work in our cells. Certain gene changes can cause cells to evade normal growth controls and become cancer.
For example, some cancer-causing gene changes increase production of a protein that makes cells grow. Others result in the production of a misshapen, and therefore nonfunctional, form of a protein that normally repairs cellular damage. Genetic changes that promote cancer can be inherited from our parents if the changes are present in germ cells , which are the reproductive cells of the body eggs and sperm.
Such changes, called germline changes, are found in every cell of the offspring. Genetic changes that occur after conception are called somatic or acquired changes. There are many different kinds of DNA changes. Some changes affect just one unit of DNA, called a nucleotide.
One nucleotide may be replaced by another, or it may be missing entirely. Other changes involve larger stretches of DNA and may include rearrangements, deletions, or duplications of long stretches of DNA. Sometimes the changes are not in the actual sequence of DNA. In general, cancer cells have more genetic changes than normal cells. Some of these changes may be the result of cancer, rather than the cause. As the cancer continues to grow, additional changes will occur.
Even within the same tumor, cancer cells may have different genetic changes. Inherited genetic mutations play a major role in about 5 to 10 percent of all cancers. Researchers have associated mutations in specific genes with more than 50 hereditary cancer syndromes , which are disorders that may predispose individuals to developing certain cancers. Genetic tests for hereditary cancer syndromes can tell whether a person from a family that shows signs of such a syndrome has one of these mutations.
These tests can also show whether family members without obvious disease have inherited the same mutation as a family member who carries a cancer-associated mutation. However, certain patterns in a family—such as the types of cancer that develop, other non-cancer conditions that are seen, and the ages at which cancer develops—may suggest the presence of a hereditary cancer syndrome.
Even if a cancer-predisposing mutation is present in a family, not everyone who inherits the mutation will necessarily develop cancer. For more genes that can play a role in hereditary cancer syndromes, see Genetic Testing for Inherited Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes. Genetic counseling can help people consider the risks, benefits, and limitations of genetic testing in their particular situations. A genetic counselor, doctor, or other health care professional trained in genetics can help an individual or family understand their test results and explain the possible implications of test results for other family members.
Legal protections are in place to prevent genetic discrimination, including the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of and the Privacy Rule of the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of The page on Genetic Testing for Inherited Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes has more information on what tests are available and who may want to consider them.
This information may help doctors sort out which therapies might work best against a particular tumor. Tumor DNA sequencing can also reveal the presence of inherited mutations. As with testing for specific mutations in hereditary cancer syndromes, clinical DNA sequencing has implications that patients need to consider.
For example, they may learn incidentally about the presence of inherited mutations that may cause other diseases, in them or in their family members. Menu Contact Dictionary Search. Understanding Cancer. What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics. Cancer Disparities. Cancer Causes and Prevention. Risk Factors. Cancer Prevention Overview. Cancer Screening Overview. Screening Tests. Diagnosis and Staging.
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Genes and Chromosomes
Peptide deformylase, mitochondrial
Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy:. Select item s and click on "Add to basket" to create your own collection here entries max. Manual assertion inferred by curator from i.
In eubacteria and eukaryotic organelles the product of this gene, peptide deformylase PDF , removes the formyl group from the initiating methionine of nascent peptides. In eubacteria, deformylation of nascent peptides is required for subsequent cleavage of initiating methionines by methionine aminopeptidase. The discovery that a natural inhibitor of PDF, actinonin, acts as an antimicrobial agent in some bacteria has spurred intensive research into the design of bacterial-specific PDF inhibitors. In human cells, only mitochondrial proteins have N-formylation of initiating methionines. In humans, PDF function may therefore be restricted to rapidly growing cells.
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