File Name: surrealism and painting mark polizzotti .zip
Surrealism and the dream. A wave of dreams. Private collection. Thanks to the dream, death no longer has any obscure meaning and the meaning of life becomes a matter of indifference. Georges Sebbag summarized the chronological stages of the pre-Surrealist invocation of the dream as follows: 1. Autumn , the so-called period of sleeping fi ts [sommeils].
Sebbag delves into these phases and what happened in them in his contribution to this catalogue. Psychic automatism, automatic writing, dream.
Along with the desire for an intense poetic renewal, these are the fundamental elements that will finally lead to the formation of the Surrealist Group in Oil on canvas, Moderna Museet, Stockholm. Dream and imagination, then, as coded expressions, in the image, of the total freedom of human mental activity, beyond the restrictions of logic, morality and the conventions of taste. The agonizing question of possibility is no longer pertinent.
It is also important to emphasize the importance of the visual nature of the dream. He kept it until , when he sold it, probably for economic reasons.
Also in October , Louis Aragon published A Wave of Dreams, although it appears he had fi nished writing it a short time before Breton completed the Manifesto. And so for two years the concept of surreality would spin round and round, with a changing set of resolutions in tow. In the realm of Surrealism the image is, and so when it is visualized through the dream or the imagination it is not possible to consider it as a mere illusion, but as that marvelous affair which constitutes the other part of reality.
In the way is defi nitively paved, the frontier has been crossed. Dreams, dreams, dreams, at last the blue sun of dreams forces the steel-eyed beasts back to their lairs. Dreams, dreams, dreams on the lips of love, on the numbers of happiness, on the teardrops of carefulness, on the signals of hope, on building sites where a whole nation submits to the authority of pickaxes. Dreams, dreams, dreams, nothing but dreams where the wind wanders and barking dogs are out on the roads Aragon , 8.
I am dreaming of a long dream where everyone would be dreaming. I do not know what will come of this new undertaking of dreams. I dream at the edge of the world and the night.
Although it is not possible to deal with all its moments and manifestations here, it is necessary to point out that the importance of the dream in the Surrealist project of liberation will go on being stressed in the years ahead. But the two opposite shores now are no longer Dream and Revolution: they are dream or desire and the physical existence of the person, and it is love, mad love, unique love, that bridges the gap between them.
Life's other fifty percent. The Surrealist conception of the dream has specific features which differentiate it from other approaches. It is true that following on from various antecedents—Romantic literature, Symbolist writing and the specific contributions of psychiatry and psychology in the nineteenth century — the decisive impulse behind Surrealist approaches to, and elaborations of, the dream derive from Sigmund Freud and his major work, The Interpretation of Dreams [Die Traumdeutung, ].
But the Surrealists did not confine themselves to being mere followers of Freud. Although there are doubtless some connections, the Surrealist conception of the dream is notably different from the ones maintained in Romantic and Symbolist literature. In the last analysis, the vacillation and incertitude of human dreams would have its corollary in the same vacillation and incertitude that appear in the divine dream.
O Thou! So Thee too dost dream! Forgive us, then, our dreams [songes] Hugo , —5. There are limits that the historical and cultural time in which we live do not allow us to transcend. For the Surrealists the dream is not an expression of the supernatural, nor is it something artificial or unnatural, but part and parcel of human life.
What is most interesting is that Bergson already proposes, as we shall subsequently find in Surrealism, a wholly immanent conception of the dream that flies in the face of all notions of transcendence or mystery. Dreams take shape through the action of sensitive, non-conscious memory. Did the Surrealists know the philosophy of Henri Bergson — winner of the Nobel Prize in — who was so popular during the formative years of the group? From the Surrealist standpoint, nothing in the dream comes from somewhere external to life, to human life.
As a result the vision of reality opens up, is extended, smashes through the frontiers of the night established by reason and consciousness.
While the attention given to, and the recognition of, the importance of the dream goes back to time immemorial and is, of course, manifested in very different ways in all human cultures, with the Surrealists the dream is situated, once and for all, on an anthropological plane as one more area of the experience of life.
To be sure, the Surrealist approach springs from poetry and has its ramifications in all areas of aesthetic experience, being articulated, at the same time, at the level of reflection on the dynamic and the functioning of human mental life. It is obvious, as the Surrealists themselves recognized, that their approach is directly related to the premises of psychoanalysis and to the dream theory of Sigmund Freud.
As well as this combination of other elements, in the particular instance of Breton the complex nature of his relationship with Freud has to be borne in mind. Of course, may things distinguished Freud from Breton on the personal level: age, predisposition and, above all, education and objectives. In Freud, scientific training and fundamentally therapeutic goals. In Breton, literary formation and primarily poetic objectives. What is important is what these theories suggest, open up and facilitate in the realm of artistic work, and not so much any theoretical and conceptual considerations as to their validity.
I think that the central nexus of psychoanalysis and Surrealism is located in the leading, causal function that each of them assign to desire. As we know, Freud considers the dream, in its different types or facets, as the disguised expression of the satisfaction of a desire. As he sees it, a direct relationship exists between dreams and the sexual instinct and desire, the latter being unattainable.
The advantage, and accordingly the purpose, of such a change jumps to the eyes. Freud adds, moreover, that not only does such a change of expression favor representability, it is equally advantageous for condensation and censorship, the other two aspects that together with displacement intervene, according to psychoanalysis, in the configuration of dreams. The consideration of representability: in the opposite, or complementary, direction we might also say that Freud teaches us to see the intense aesthetic work that takes place in dream production.
This is not strictly speaking the same as artistic work, since art involves the use of consciousness, and its objectives and function are different to those of the dream. Breton was fully aware of the pictorial dimension of the dream underlined by Freud, and of its connection with desire. However, even if it fi nds the raw material it uses indifferent up to a certain point, it is not so richly inclined as to the manner of treating it.
Via the flux of desire, in Surrealism the doors of the dream remained open wide for its integration in life, and the latter in turn extended the materials it offers to art with the elimination of the frontier zones between day and night. The dream opened up as experiential matter and also as a standard or model of pictorial elaboration that was not subject to the dictates of reason or morality.
From dream to art. With Surrealism, then, a whole series of steps are taken from earlier conceptions of the dream to what is posited in it: the dream as an eminently pictorial realm, a privileged space for the viewing of images. Of human images of desire. Left behind are conceptions of the dream as a mythical or religious manifestation of supernatural powers.
And even the psychoanalytic conception of the dream as an unconscious expression of unsatisfi ed desire. In Surrealism the dream is considered a central realm of human existence, in which mental life acts in a way that is free from the limitations and censorship of wakefulness, thus providing a new ambit, a greater density and depth to life. All the same, it is odd and at the same time extremely significant to verify the lack of attention that has been paid in the world of art to the relationship between Surrealism and the dream.
And this despite the fact that from the first, as we have seen, the Surrealists vindicated the dream, along with automatic writing, as one of the main avenues for the liberation of mental life and the poetic enrichment of the experience that inspires its premises.
There have been many exhibitions devoted to Surrealism in general, or one or another of its aspects in particular. And quite a few focusing on dreams, from very different premises, which in some instances include a few aspects or sections, necessarily partial, devoted to Surrealism.
But up until now an art exhibition has not been held that addresses, in monographic form and with the intensity that this calls for, this central and intensely suggestive subject matter: Surrealism and the dream. The bibliography on the issue is, moreover, somewhat lacking. As a theoretical synthesis the book is excellent, but it focuses on the genealogical reconstruction of the steps the Surrealists took in their interest in the dream and in the analysis of the literary elaborations around this.
On the other hand it does not address the issue with reference to the. There are also two historic interventions, by now extremely remote in time, which must be recorded. The illustrations are twenty-two in number, all in black and white. Especially relevant, it seems to me, is the inclusion, among the illustrations, of a still from Peter Ibbetson Henry Hathaway, , a film that fascinated the Surrealists.
These illustrations suggest two things of importance. Firstly, the relevance oneiric subject matter already had at the time in Surrealist visual art. And, conjointly, the attention paid to the dream in cinema, which must therefore be considered a further element, of no little importance, on the pictorial horizon of Surrealism.
The final illustration, which closes the cahier, is a reproduction of a handwritten letter from Freud dated December 8, Eroticism, desire, mental deployment, knowledge: the dream presents as a spectacle of the marvelous, in life itself, the expedients and components that also function in the process of making art. The exhibition had the support of the monthly magazine Visages du monde [Faces of the world], which on March 15 published a number of the same name [fig. The handout summarizing the exhibition [fig.
Their limitations have quite a lot to do with the dispersion of the two schemes, probably inevitable given the moment in which they were produced. And yet too much time has gone by without us being able to describe either important theoretical considerations or the organization of exhibitions centering on this decisive question, Surrealism and the dream, with respect to art. To this first question I have tried to give a reply, in the form of a summary, in the previous pages.
In reference to the second question, inscribed within the Surrealist spirit there is a whole series of artworks of great quality and consistency, and in whose elaboration, approach and thematic development the dream plays the leading role.
It is these works that we present in the exhibition. And this aspect is decisive as the conceptual kernel of the exhibition. The tenets of Surrealism have left the deepest of traces on all subsequent art, on the arts and on contemporary sensibility tout court. Front cover of the magazine Visages du monde, no.
Things have never been the same in the culture of our time since the irruption of Surrealism in the image. Surrealism has been, and to some extent still is, a catalyst, a driving force, in the process of liberating mental life and in an expansion of the sentient from which there is no turning back. The exhibition sets out to demonstrate that this trace, that the great wave of this transformation of sensibility, has one of its deepest roots in the Surrealist yoking of dream and image [fig.
Seeking after maximum coherence in the conceptual premise I have just outlined, the exhibition is articulated around the idea of the Surrealist unity of the image. With this I wish to indicate that from writing to the wide range of visual supports, and including what we might call the musical liberation of sound—has the relationship ever been established, up to a point at least, between the musical ideas of a John Cage and Surrealism?
Styles and movements — Collections — Historians and critics — Preservation and conservation — Reference works. Ivan Goll, Paris, French Le Grand Jeu , 4 numbers, eds. French Documents , 15 numbers, ed. Georges Bataille, Paris,
Surrealism and the dream. A wave of dreams. Private collection. Thanks to the dream, death no longer has any obscure meaning and the meaning of life becomes a matter of indifference. Georges Sebbag summarized the chronological stages of the pre-Surrealist invocation of the dream as follows: 1. Autumn , the so-called period of sleeping fi ts [sommeils]. Sebbag delves into these phases and what happened in them in his contribution to this catalogue.
And, in Mark Polizzotti, he has found a flawless biographer. Polizzotti has produced a substantial work. Not only a very extensive portrait, but also the portrait of a vast, conflict-laden field of interpersonal disharmony and deep abysses in the realm of creative self-expression. A lively, eminently readable piece of literary history. How astonishing that this summum should be a first book!
There were three of them, two of them fairly good-sized, and one of them so small as to be unlikely. But the officer in charge told them to search it anyway. No sign of life, no scraps of clothing, or utensils.
A literary retrospective of a crucial period in modernism—the transition from Dada to Surrealism——via portraits and encounters with its literary lions, including Joyce, Proust, Reverdy, Apollinaire, Crevel and more by the co-founder of the Paris surrealist group. Poet Alan Bernheimer provides a long overdue English translation of this French literary classic— Lost Profiles is a retrospective of a crucial period in modernism, written by co-founder of the Surrealist Movement. Opening with a reminiscence of the international Dada movement in the late s and its transformation into the beginnings of surrealism, Lost Profiles then proceeds to usher its readers into encounters with a variety of literary lions. The collection ends with essays on two modernist forerunners, Charles Baudelaire and Henri Rousseau.
A history of Surrealism and its links with politics and, in particular, anarchism and socialism.
Хейл был необычайно силен. Когда он проволок ее по ковру, с ее ног соскочили туфли. Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала. Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась. Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь.
Вовсе нет, - ответила Мидж.